Hardware layer

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  • Types of Information: text, graphic, voice; audio; video, game… Communication systems: end systems: work-stations, servers, printers… networking devices: hub; switch; routers… capacity depending on hardware configurations (CPU, RAM, Bus…)

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  • Chapter summary: The network topology is the pattern used to connect computers and other devices with the cable or other network medium; the three primary LAN topologies are bus, star, and ring; UTP cable in the star topology is the most common network medium used today; a network interface adapter provides the interface that enables a computer to connect to a network; the network interface adapter and its driver implement the data-link layer protocol on the computer; hubs are devices that connect computers on a star or ring network.

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  • They now include finer conductor tracks and thinner laminates, present in an ever-increasing number of layers. Integrated circuits have become dramatically sophisticated especially in the last decade. This has in turn created new design requirements for mounting them on the boards. While insertion was common with DIP (dual in- line-package) technology in the 1970s, surface mount technology in now being increasingly employed. holes is increasing; and hole diameters are rapidly decreasing.

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  • Topic 1: OSI Reference Model & Layered Communications 1. Choose all terms popularly used as synonyms for MAC address. A. NIC address. B. Card address. C. LAN address. D. Hardware address. E. Ethernet address. F. Token Ring address. G. FDDI address. H. Burned-in address. I. MAC address. 2. What portion of a MAC address encodes an identifier representing the manufacturer of the card (choose two)? A. The first 3 bytes. B. The result show interface command for a LAN interface lists the burned in address after the acronym BIA. C. The first 6 bytes D. The first 12 Hexadecimal digits 3....

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  • A USB system consists of a host computer, one or more USB devices, and a physical bus. The host consists of two layers: an upper software layer, which includes USB device drivers, and a host controller hardware layer, also known as an adapter layer. The main responsibility of the host computer is to control data transfers to and from USB devices. USB devices are peripherals that use the USB electrical and data format specifications to communicate with the host computer. The physical bus is the set of USB cables that links the controller with the peripherals....

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  • This chapter describes the development of a humanoid robotic language and the creation of a virtual reality system for the simulation of humanoid robots. In this chapter we propose a description language for specifying motions for humanoid robots and for allowing humanoid robots to acquire motor skills. Locomotion greatly increases our ability to interact with our environments, which in turn increases our mental abilities. This principle also applies to humanoid robots.

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  • The research of neural networks has experienced several ups and downs in the 20th century. The last resurgence is believed to be initiated by several seminal works of Hopfield and Tank in the 1980s, and this upsurge has persisted for three decades. The Hopfield neural networks, either discrete type or continuous type, are actually recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The hallmark of an RNN, in contrast to feedforward neural networks, is the existence of connections from posterior layer(s) to anterior layer(s) or connections among neurons in the same layer....

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  • • Network errors are in the form of corrupted data or lost data. • Network errors occur naturally on all networks due to electrical noise and distortion and must be detected and corrected by either hardware or software. • Bit Error Rates (BERs) are calculated as the number of bits in error divided by the number of bits transmitted. A BER of 1 in 100,000 might be shown as 1:105 or simply as a BER of 10-5 . • Errors often occur in bursts where many bits in a sequence will be in...

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  • Networking Standards and the  OSI Model Identify organizations that set standards for networking. Describe the purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers Explain specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer Understand how two network nodes communicate through the OSI model Discuss the structure and purpose of data packets and frames. Describe the two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model.

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  • Network Protocols Identify the characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk Understand how network protocols correlate to layers of the OSI Model Identify the core protocols of the TCP/IP suite and describe their functions Identify the well-known ports for key TCP/IP services Understand addressing schemes for TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, and AppleTalk Describe the purpose and implementation of DNS (Domain Name System) and WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) Install protocols on Windows XP clients...

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  • Networking Hardware Identify the functions of LAN connectivity hardware Install and configure a NIC (Network Interface Card) Identify problems associated with connectivity hardware Describe the factors involved in choosing a NIC, hub, switch, or router Discuss the functions of repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, and gateways, and the OSI Model layers at which they operate Describe the use and types of routing protocols

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  • One of the toughest jobs facing Information Technology (IT) professionals is creating, managing, and maintaining the many Images that are required in our enterprise Networks. Each hardware platform requires a separate image due to the confines of the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) which governs each hardware type. The cost of imaging has been described by Network Managers as the “single most expensive task that is performed on a regular basis by Administrators” (Center for Internet Computing) to keep their networks up and running.

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  • Lecture Operating System: Chapter 05 - Input/Output presented Principles of I/O hardware, Principles of I/O software, I/O software layers, Disks, Clocks, Character-oriented terminals, Graphical user interfaces, Network terminals, Power management.

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  • In the last decades the restless evolution of information and communication technologies (ICT) brought to a deep transformation of our habits. The growth of the Internet and the advances in hardware and software implementations modified our way to communicate and to share information. In this book, an overview of the major issues faced today by researchers in the field of radio communications is given through 35 high quality chapters written by specialists working in universities and research centers all over the world....

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  • This course provides hands-on experience with network configuration, network troubleshooting; Domain Name System (DNS); Network Time Protocol (NTP); Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP); and IPv6.

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  • CAD and the use of PCs generally within the Construction Industry is a relatively recent discipline and continues to evolve as Hardware and Software improves and as CAD users discover new efficiencies within each Software package. This Manual therefore will be subject to frequent revision.

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  • • Note: – The Internet is based on IP addresses – Data link protocols (Ethernet, FDDI, ATM) may have different (MAC) addresses • The ARP and RARP protocols perform the translation between IP addresses and MAC layer addresses • We will discuss ARP for broadcast LANs, particularly Ethernet LANs

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  • Operating System: Chapter 5 - Input/Output presents about Principles of I/O hardware, Principles of I/O software, I/O software layers, Disks, Clocks, Character-oriented terminals, Graphical user interfaces, Network terminals, Power management.

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  • Chapter 2 - Network hardware. The layered model that dominated data communication and networking literature before 1990 was the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Everyone believed that the OSI model would become the ultimate standard for data communications - but this did not happen. The TCP/IP protocol suite became the dominant commercial architecture because it was used and tested extensively in the Internet; the OSI model was never fully implemented. In this chapter, we first briefly discuss the OSI model and then we concentrate on TCP/IP as a protocol suite.

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  • This lab will help to develop a better understanding of the seven layers of the OSI model. Specifically as they relate to the most popular functioning networking model in existence, the TCP/IP model. The Internet is based on TCP/IP. TCP/IP has become the standard language of networking. However, the seven layers of the OSI model are the ones most commonly used to describe and compare networking software and hardware from various vendors. It is very important to know both models and be able to relate or map the layers of one to the other.

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