Health expenditures

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  • Women’s health is inextricably linked to the context in which they live their lives. Only within the past few decades have researchers and clinicians acknowledged the importance of women’s lived experiences for their well-being. The feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s prompted critical analysis of women’s health and its relationship to society, and of women’s health care options.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: To what extent does recurrent government health expenditure in Uganda reflect its policy priorities?

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  • This special edition of Health at a Glance focuses on health issues across the 27 European Union member states, three European Free Trade Association countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) and Turkey. it gives readers a better understanding of the factors that affect the health of populations And The performance of health systems in these countries. Its 42 indicators present comparable data covering a wide range of topics, including health status, risk factors, health workforce and health expenditure.

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  • Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education, and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation, consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.

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  • Most health care spending is for care provided by hospitals and physicians. Health care spending encompasses a wide variety of health-related goods and services, from hospital care and prescription drugs to dental services and medical equipment purchases. Figure 7 illustrates spending on health by type of expense in 2010. Spending on hospital care and physician services ($1,329.5 billion combined) makes up just over one-half of health care expenditures (51%). While spending on prescription drugs ($259.

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  • With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.

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  • In an effort to modernize Medicare insurance, the Federal government has allowed private insurers who meet strict requirements to sell private insurance to the elderly, as a substitute for 'traditional' Medicare insurance. There are many forms of private insurance now being sold to the elderly, including some managed care plan types. Managed care plans restrict the choice of physicians and hospitals to include a set selected by the insurance plan, over whom the plan has more control in terms of utilization and expenditures.

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  • The military health system, as well as the private health care sector, has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical expenditures. In 2002 alone, the Department of Defense spent about $3 billion on outpatient pharmacy benefits. As part of an effort to redesign the TRICARE pharmacy benefit to save costs, the Department

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  • The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. HMN is the first global health partnership that focuses on two core requirements of health system strengthening in low and low-middle income countries. First, the need to enhance entire health information and statistical systems, rather than focus only upon specific diseases.

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  • A considerable and relatively stable share of OOP expenses is attributable to informal payments, which are a well-known phenomenon within the Hungarian health care system. Voluntary health insurance does not play a significant role at present and has only supplementary and complementary functions. Other sources of finance also contribute to total health expenditure, such as EU capital grants, which are invested mostly in human resource and health care infrastructure development.

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  • Trends in education and health outcomes are not closely related to spending trends in G7 countries. A comparison of Tables 1 and 2 shows that the U.K. achieved above-average improvements in education outcomes with relatively modest increases in real spending, while the U.S. achieved less with more additional resources. Similarly, trends in real health expenditure and health status show that Germany has been able to achieve more gains with a smaller increase in real resources than Canada, the U.K., and the U.S. These issues will be investigated in more depth in the following section.

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  • The issue of health system financing has dominated the health care agenda of consecutive governments since the changeover from the communist regime. The first wave of reforms (1989–1993) transformed the system from one financed primarily through taxes to one based on compulsory health insurance. In 2009 Hungary spent 7.4% of its GDP on health, with public expenditure accounting for 69.7% of total health spending. Health spending has been unstable over the years, with several waves of increases followed by longer periods of cost-containment and budget cuts.

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  • In the single-payer system, the recurrent expenditure on health services is funded primarily through compulsory, non-risk-related contributions made by eligible individuals or from the state budget. The central government has almost exclusive power to formulate strategic direction and to issue and enforce regulations regarding health care. In 2009 Hungary spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, with public expenditure accounting for 69.

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  • Lecture Health economics - Chapter 2: Health, medical care, and medical spending. This chapter presents the following content: An economic model of utility, health, and medical care, measuring health status, empirical evidence on health production, health care expenditures.

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  • Collecting health expenditure in Zambia utilizing NHA surveys is an activity that has not been institutionalized or routine for many private entities and individuals. Similar to other developing countries, a major barrier to conducting a NHA analysis is collecting data that is available, valid, reliable, and consistent. As noted in the 1998 Rwanda HIV/AIDS subanalysis (Schneider et al.

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  • A similar sampling technique – based on district and provincial population size – was used for surveys of providers: employers, health care facilities, traditional healers, NGOs, and pharmacies. Due to the size of each province and district, random selection was used. Donors and insurance company surveys were implemented only in Lusaka.

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  • Data gleaned from the various NHA surveys were used to estimate household expenditures. A household survey was not conducted for this NHA exercise and, despite several requests to contacts at the Living Conditions Monitoring Survey (LCMS), that survey was not available to the NHA team. 1 Table 2 shows the distribution of household out-of-pocket payment directly made to public and private providers. Households made 31.9 percent of health expenditures at public providers, 65.8 percent at private providers, and 2.4 percent at pharmacies.

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  • The National Health Accounts (NHA) methodology is a tool that allows countries to track the flow of health spending from financial sources to end users. NHA includes estimates of household expenditures, spending that governments have not historically considered when looking at national health expenditures. This paper summarizes how NHA was used to capture general health and HIV/AIDS-specific expenditures in Zambia in 2002. It was that country’s first attempt to assess spending on a disease-specific expenditure.

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  • This primer gives a brief glimpse of available data on health care costs, and summarizes the impact of spending growth on various parts of society. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the source for several of the analyses shown, present the costs of care by type of health service or product (such as hospital care, physician services, or prescription drugs), sources of funds (such as private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, or out-of-pocket by the individual patient), and types of sponsors (private business, households, and government).

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  • Several figures in this primer show the cumulative percent change in private health insurance or health insurance premiums (Figures 11, 15, and 20). These cumulative increases may vary from figure to figure because different years are used, the data sources differ, and what is being measured varies.

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