Heat requirements

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  • Welcome to the discipline of building services engineering. You will find that it extends beyond the confines of this text, which concentrates on some of the ‘wet services’ within the building envelope. Part of Chapter 1, however, looks at the building and the way it behaves when it is intermittently heated, as it is important for you to select the plant and design the system that will best suit the building and its use. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of building services.

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  • This Section provides requirements for design, fabrication, installation and inspection of steam heating, hot water heating, hot water supply boilers, and potable water heaters intended for low pressure service that are directly fired by oil,...

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  • Only basic selection parameters are included. To make the very best selection of a ball screw, the designer should specify such critical parameters as the load profile, the linear or rotational speed, the rates of acceleration and deceleration, the cycle rate, the environment, the required life, the lead accuracy, the stiffness, and any other special requirement. If in doubt, please consult an SKF ball screw specialist before placing an order.

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  • Engineers use the concepts and methods of mechanics of solids in designing and evaluating tools, machines, and structures, ranging from wrenches to cars to spacecraft. The required educational back ground for these includes courses in statics, dynamics, mechanics of materials, and related subjects.

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  • Enormous number of books, reviews and original papers concerning engineering applications of heat transfer has already been published and numerous new publications appear every year due to exceptionally wide list of objects and processes that require to be considered with a view to thermal energy redistribution. All the three mechanisms of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) contribute to energy redistribution, however frequently the dominant mechanism can be singled out.

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  • I. Introduction An important aspect of nuclear reactor core analysis involves the determination of the optimal coolant flow distribution and pressure drop across the reactor core. On the one hand, higher coolant flow rates will lead to better heat transfer coefficients and higher Critical Heat Flux (CHF) limits. On the other hand, higher flows rates will also in large pressure drops across the reactor core, hence larger required pumping powers and larger dynamic loads on the core components.

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  • When the peak cooling load and latent heat requirements are appropriate, this less expensive type of equipment is used. In this case the air quantity is determined in a different way. The peak cooling load is first computed as 1.3 times the peak sensible cooling load for the structure to match the coil SHF. The equipment is then selected to match the peak cooling load as closely as possible. The air quantity is specified by the manufacturer for each unit and is about 400 cfm/ton or 0.0537 m 3 /sec • kW. The total air quantity is then divided among...

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  • The utilisation of renewable energies is not at all new; in the history of mankind renewable energies have for a long time been the primary possibility of generating energy. This only changed with industrial revolution when lignite and hard coal became increasingly more important. Later on, also crude oil gained importance. Offering the advantages of easy transportation and processing also as a raw material, crude oil has become one of the prime energy carriers applied today.

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  • Ion implantation represents a particularly useful means by which to modify the surface properties of a variety of materials. This prosaic statement, however, does not convey the depth of basic understanding which has been developed to fully utilize the advantages of ion implantation. The interaction of a host lattice with the energetic beams produces metastable states and structures which cannot be achieved by other means. However, ion implantation also requires an understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that dictate the interaction of the ion beam and the target.

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  • The need for protection against the effects of explosions is not new. The use of explosive weaponry by the military necessitated resistive entrenchments ages ago. Industrialization of our societies well over a century ago meant that we intended to manufacture, store, handle, and use explosives in constructive ways. To support these military and industrial purposes, a relatively small group of designers have worked to devise ways to strengthen the blast resistance of our structures.

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  • Installation of new system. When no existing system is present, the designer must select the system that is most appropriate for the end user. High temperature hot water and steam/condensate systems are the most common types of distribution systems currently used on military installations. However, a new system should only use the temperatures and pressures necessary to meet the requirements…

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  • In recent decades scientists and engineers around the globe have been responding to the requirement of high performance materials through innovative material research and engineering. The ever increasing demand on quality and reliability has resulted in some dazzling technological achievements in the area of advanced materials and manufacturing.

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  • Heat conduction is a fundamental phenomenon encountered in many industrial and biological processes as well as in everyday life. Economizing of energy consumption in different heating and cooling processes or ensuring temperature limitations for proper device operation requires the knowledge of heat conduction physics and mathematics.

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  • In the wake of energy crisis due to rapid growth of industries, urbanization, transportation, and human habit, the efficient transfer of heat could play a vital role in energy saving. Industries, household requirements, offices, transportation are all dependent on heat exchanging equipment. Considering these, the present book has incorporated different sections related to general aspects of heat transfer phenomena, convective heat transfer mode, boiling and condensation, heat transfer to two phase flow and heat transfer augmentation by different means....

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  • One advantage of conducting after-hours building walk-throughs to collect data on office equipment power status is that more buildings can be surveyed with a given amount of time and money. On the other hand, the data collected represents a snapshot in time, and does not capture variations in user behavior over time, which would require automated long-term time series metering of equipment power state and power levels. This is our most robust sample of buildings to date for collecting data on the after hours power status of office equipment.

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  • This equipment usually has a capacity of less than 10 tons or 35 kW. When the peak cooling load and latent heat requirements are appropriate, this less expensive type of equipment is used. In this case the air quantity is determined in a different way. The peak cooling load is first computed as 1.3 times the peak sensible cooling load for the structure to match the coil SHF. The equipment is then selected to match the peak cooling load as closely as possible.

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  • Climate change may initially have small positive effects for a few developed countries, but is likely to be very damaging for the much higher temperature increases expected by mid- to late-century under BAU scenarios. In higher latitude regions, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, climate change may lead to net benefits for temperature increases of 2 or 3°C, through higher agricultural yields, lower winter mortality, lower heating requirements, and a possible boost to tourism.

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  • Successful dairy cow management requires matching the quality and supply of feed with the cow‟s nutritional requirements as efficiently and profitably as possible. Therefore, it is vital that dairy farmers become increasingly proactive in minimising the uncertainties in pasture growth and availability and become more focused on producing forages that can be preserved and utilised when pasture is not readily available.

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  • Transparent heat mirror thin films have high transmittance in the visible range of wavelength and high reflectance in the infrared range of wavelength. TiO2/TiN/TiO2 films prepared via a D.C reactive magnetron sputtering method on Corning glass and Alkali glass substrates, serve as transparent heat mirrors. The outer TiO2 layer has both the photo-catalytic and anti-reflective properties. The experiment data showed that the film thickness required for photocatalytic properties exceeds 350nm.

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  • Monitoring and verification standards are required to ensure that offset projects perform as expected and to quantify their actual emission reductions. Monitoring protocols are generally developed in conjunction with accounting protocols. Verification usually requires the services of a third-party professional verifier, or a government regulator. If third-party verifiers are used, they need to meet minimum qualifications and have some expertise related to the types of projects they are verifying. This is one of the biggest gaps in the voluntary carbon offset market right now.

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