Heavy metal toxicity

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  • In recent scenario due to indiscriminate human activities the heavy metal pollution is very much concerned because of their toxicity for animal and human beings and their lack of biodegradability. Heavy metal toxicity is linked with a number of diseases but the severity of situation multiplies too many folds if these heavy metals are found in milk, which is the basic food item of vulnerable age group of people.

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  • Heavy metals severely affect the quality of water. Species of Salvinia are regarded as potent hyperaccumulators of heavy metals. Biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyper accumulators by transferring metal hyper accumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species. Heavy metal toxicity and the danger of their bioaccumulation in the food chain represent major environmental and health problems.

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  • The major challenge lies in feeding the overly populated country which creates more dependency on the use of fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, and manures etc., to increase the crop yields. Use of agro chemicals coupled with waste water irrigation has resulted in rapid deterioration of soil quality due to over accumulation of heavy metals which are non degradable and persist for longer time in soils.

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  • Cadmium is a heavy metal and a pollutant that can be found in large quantities in the environment from industrial waste. Its toxicity for living organisms could arise from its ability to alter thiol-containing cellular com-ponents. Glutathione is an abundant tripeptide (c-Glu-Cys-Gly) that is described as the first line of defence against cadmium in many cell types.

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  • In addition, the utilization of polymeric components can result in a low corrosion, selectivity, controllability, and recyclability of absorbents when operated in real environment conditions. This article summarizes the preparation techniques and desirable properties of polymer for removal of toxic heavy metal ion as well as the possibility of polymers in collecting some rare noble metal ions.

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  • The Mandideep city is rapid growing city in Madhya Pradesh state, India. In recent days industrialization is growing in very faster rate than any other activities. Due to industrialization, the heavy metals pollution load for soil, water and air has increasing day by day.

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  • Effluent borne heavy metals in soil ecosystem can result into phytotoxic levels impair plant growth. Long-term accumulation of toxic metals in soils and their uptake by crop plants has a high potential for phytotoxicity besides entering into the food chain. Soils in both the districts were slightly acidic to neutral. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was highest in maize wheat production system and least in pasture system in soils of district Samba, and whereas least was observed in rice wheat system in soils of Kathua.

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  • As the urban area has high population density and intensive anthropogenic activities, there are a great number of sources of heavy metals in cities, placing a considerable influence on human health. Emissions of heavy metals may come from domestic waste, chemical industry and transportation. These emissions have been continuously adding heavy metals to soils and they will remain present for many years even after the pollution sources have been removed.

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  • Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity.

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  • Chicken eggs are one of the main sources of protein but if contaminated by toxic heavy metals due to industrial waste, geochemical structures and agricultural activities is a serious problem for environmental and human health. The aim of our study is focused on evaluating the trace elements level in eggs that collected from the retail outlets in and around Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. The concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb and Fe were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry.

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  • Heavy metal is a general technical term that applies to the group of metals and metalloids with density greater than 4±1 g cm-3 or elements having atomic weight more than 20. Heavy metals are considered toxic to living organisms and even trace metals that are considered essential for life can be toxic when present at excessive level, impair important biochemical process and also pose threat to human health, plant growth and animal life. The heavy metals, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were found accumulated in seeds collected from various sites.

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  • Hundred and twenty eighty halophilic bacterial isolated from the soil and water of Karnataka mangrove regions were examined for multi-metal tolerance. Bacillus pumilus (accession no.MF472596) was found to be tolerant against four toxic heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Ba2+) up to 1000 ppm each.

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  • In recent times river pollution is a serious and growing problem in most developing countries. Industrial effluents and sewage entering the water bodies are one of the major sources of environmental toxicity, which endangers aquatic biota and deteriorates water quality. Biological methods for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste may provide an attractive alternative to the physiochemical process. Biosurfactants are one of the compounds that help in alleviating the heavy metals.

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  • Accelerated exploitation of oil and gas resources planned and implemented by ONGC and BGEIPL in west coast offshore region would result into stress particularly on marine environment. The long term physical, chemical and biological changes due to routine discharges from offshore installations can best be assessed through a study on accumulation of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fishes, plankton and sediments which together form biotic and abiotic components of marine environment.

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  • Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments.

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  • The study assessed the physio-chemical and heavy metals concentrations in eight randomly selected boreholes water at Muledane village in Limpopo Province of South Africa and the results were compared with South African National standard permissible limit.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • Permanganate may be applied to sites as either potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). Where cost dominates over engineering factors at a site, potassium permanganate is the preferred chemical form because it is more widely available, less costly, and is available in solid form, which facilitates transport and handling. Where other factors are more important, the liquid form of sodium permangante is preferable.

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  • Toxic heavy metals, i.e. copper (II), lead (II) and cadmium (II), can be removed from water by metallurgical solid wastes, i.e. bauxite waste red muds and coal fly ashes acting as sorbents. These heavy-metal-loaded solid wastes may then be solidified by adding cement to a durable concrete mass assuring their safe disposal. Thus, toxic metals in water have been removed by sorption on to inexpensive solid waste materials as a preliminary operation of ultimate fixation. Metal uptake (sorption) and release (desorption) have been investigated by thermostatic batch experiments.

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  • Some of the POPs targeted by the Stockholm Convention are already virtually obsolete. Their toxic effects became obvious early on and they have been banned or severely restricted in many countries for years or even decades. Replacement chemicals and techniques are in place. The remaining challenge is to find any leftover stocks and prevent them from being used. Some developing countries may need financial support to dispose of these stocks and replace them with chemicals whose benefits outweigh their risks....

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