Hidden cost

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  • An analysis of current practices and the operating environment should accompany the strategic plan. Many organizations use a standard SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis, or an organization’s leaders may choose to use an assessment tool specifically designed for healthcare reform transformation efforts. Several strategic assessment tools are available to organizations. Some are free, while others are available for a fee. Be a conscientious consumer when selecting the tool that best meets the needs of your organization.

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  • Fraught with arcane rituals, hidden traps and pitfalls, and confusing legal mumbo jumbo, the closing can be the most harrowing part of the home buying equation. Modeled after Robert Irwin's popular Home Buyer's Checklist, this book is packed with checklists, pointers, questions, and tactics that help a home buyer close the deal without losing his or her sense of humor, sanity, or shirt, including:

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  • One issue with using portfolio holdings to evaluate fund performance is that the disclosed data reveal information about the major equity positions at particular dates but do not indicate the exact purchase and sale dates. As a result, the exact holding period of securities is unknown. Furthermore, some funds may window-dress their portfolios to hide their actual investment strategy from their investors or from competing funds, as shown byMeier and Schaumburg (2004).

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  • Thus, the return gap captures the funds’ unobserved actions, which include hidden benefits and hidden costs.An important hidden benefit results from a fund’s interim trades, as discussed in Ferson and Khang (2002). Even though we can observe fund holdings only at specific points in time, funds may trade actively between these disclosure dates. If these interim trades create value, then the fund return RF will increase, while the return of the disclosed holdings RH will remain unaffected.

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  • Analyzing monthly return data on more than 2500 unique U.S. equity funds over the period 1984–2003, we show that the average return gap is close to zero. In particular, the equally weighted return gap for all mutual funds in our sample equals 1.1 basis points per month, while the value- weighted return gap equals −1.0 basis points per month. These results indicate that the magnitude of unobserved actions is relatively small in the aggregate. Thus, fund managers’ trades in the aggregate create sufficient value to offset trading costs and other hidden costs of fund management.

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  • Nowadays, huge amount of multimedia data are being constantly generated in various forms from various places around the world. With ever increasing complexity and variability of multimedia data, traditional rule-based approaches where humans have to discover the domain knowledge and encode it into a set of programming rules are too costly and incompetent for analyzing the contents, and gaining the intelligence of this glut of multimedia data. The challenges in data complexity and variability have led to revolutions in machine learning techniques.

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  • At the same time, we document a substantial cross-sectional variation in the return gap, indicating that hidden costs are more important for some funds, while hidden benefits are more pronounced for others.We also find strong persistence in the return gap for up to 5 years into the future, which suggests that the return gap is driven by systematic factors. Moreover, we find persistence in the return gap not only for the worst performers but also for the best performers. Ourmain result shows that the past return gap helps to predict fund per- formance.

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  • Technologies are playing a critical role in reducing the costs of transmitting transaction details between the customer, the retailer, the financial service provider and eventually third parties. Payment facilities encompass a variety of products (e.g. giro accounts, call accounts, transaction accounts,..) and services (e.g. bill payment, check payment, direct debit, stop orders, money transfers, credit transfers, disburse- ments, e-payments, mobile payments,…) for managing the transfer of funds to/from a customer or a third party.

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  • Here the issue is that students will respond differently to a silent film depending on a variety of factors, such as the quality of the print selected. Instructors make numerous choices concerning the way in which the class is conducted and mate- rials are integrated. Many of these choices, such as which print of a film to use, may seem relatively simple, but they can often have larger, unforeseen implica- tions. One illustration of this involves Edward T. Hall’s notion of proxemics—the relationship of social space to culture.

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  • Intellectual property (IP) rights are a source of hidden wealth worth trillions of dollars, and they impose hidden costs on the same scale. The rules of intellectual property range from confusing to nearly incomprehen- sible, and the professional practitioners who manage these rights sometimes seem to belong to a secret society. … The IP system also determines when and how an innovation becomes available for others to use by defin- ing boundaries around what is accessible and what is not.

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  • But an RTGS structure may incentivise free-riding. A bank may find it convenient to delay its outgoing payments (placing it in an internal queue) and wait for incoming funds, in order to avoid the burden of acquiring expensive liquidity in the first place. As banks fail to ‘internalise’ the systemic benefits of acquiring liquidity, RTGS systems may suffer from inefficient liquidity underprovision. Inefficiencies may also emerge for a second reason.

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  • Life cycle analysis, examining all stages in using a re- source, is central to the full cost accounting needed to guide public policy and private investment. A previous study examined the life cycle stages of oil, but without systematic quantification. 24 This pa- per is intended to advance understanding of the measurable, quantifiable, and qualitative costs of coal. In order to rigorously examine these different damage endpoints, we examined the many stages in the life cycle of coal, using a framework of en- vironmental externalities, or “hidden costs.

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  • Adding oxygenates to gasoline has the effect of making the engine run leaner: since some oxygen is already present in the fuel molecules, the total amount of oxygen (from the air and from the oxygenates) relative to carbon and hydrogen in the fuel is greater. Running the engine leaner reduces the emissions of CO substantially; it also reduces the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons to some extent. Since the largest source of CO emissions is the automobile exhaust, use of oxygenated fuels substantially reduces the emissions of this pollutant.

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  • Education should be free and compulsory as school fees often pose insurmountable blocks to children receiving an education. When poor families are forced to make difficult choices about household expendi- tures, school is often the first thing dropped, and daughters are often the first casualties. National education plans should work towards ending school fees and other hidden costs as part of well- planned educational reform strategies.

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  • The income lost among the hospitalized group was estimated at $156/patient and about $114 in the non-hospitalized patients group. Age, gender, facility of diagnosis, level of education and occupation were significant (p-values

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  • Another important aspect of TCP/IP internetworking is the creation of a standardized abstraction of the communication mechanisms provided by each type of network. Each physical network has its own technology-dependent communication interface, in the form of a programming interface that provides basic communication functions (primitives). TCP/IP provides communication services that run between the programming interface of a physical network and user applications. It enables a common interface for these applications, independent of the underlying physical network.

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  • There is a Wall of Silence separating you from some of the best performing investments in the world today. Some of these investments are hidden from you because of obsolete regulations and others purely out of ignorance (since most brokers are primarily salesmen, not true investment analysts). Even more are kept from you for the purpose of protecting the self interests of Wall Street. This virtual information blackout on these top-performing alternative investments could be costing you a fortune. As you’ll learn in this report… ...

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  • Climate impacts were monetized using estimates of the social cost of carbon—the valuation of the damages due to emissions of one metric ton of car- bon, of $30/ton of CO2equivalent (CO2e), 20 with low and high estimates of $10/ton and $100/ton. There is uncertainty around the total cost of climate change and its present value, thus uncertainty con- cerning the social cost of carbon derived from the total costs.

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  • The Minamata poisoning episode provided local researchers with the hard evidence that first linked mercury discharges to its bioaccumulation in the environment. Cats in Minamata were the first to show signs of mercury poisoning, although at the time the unusual behaviour exhibited by the cats was unexplained. The disease was known locally as “dancing cat disease” in reference to the uncontrollable muscle spasms and tremors seen in the poisoned cats.

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  • The relationship of demand and marginal value exactly parallels the relationship of supply and marginal cost, for a somewhat hidden reason. Supply is just negative demand, that is, a supplier is just the possessor of a good who doesn’t keep it but instead offers it to the market for sale. For example, when the price of housing goes up, one of the ways people demand less is by offering to rent a room in their house, that is, by supplying some of their housing to the market. Similarly, the marginal cost of supplying a good already produced...

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