Hormonal functions

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  • Hormones release of STH (and also other peptide hormones including insulin, glucagon, and gastrin). PRH: prolactin-RH remains to be characterized or established. Both TRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated. PRIH inhibits the release of prolactin and could be identical with dopamine. Hypothalamic releasing hormones are mostly administered (parenterally) for diagnostic reasons to test AH function. Therapeutic control of AH cells. GnRH is used in hypothalamic infertility in women to stimulate FSH and LH secretion and to induce ovulation.

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  • Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play a major role in animal physiology. TRs are important and very interesting regulators of diverse aspects, including brain development, hearing, bone growth, morphogenesis, metabolism, intestine, and heart rate in vertebrates (Fig. 1). Aberrant functions of TRs induce tremendous defects in these pathways. For example, the human disease of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) (see Chapter 8 by Yoh and Privalsky) is a genetically autosomal dominant inherited syndrome that is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the TRβ.

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  • EnterohemorrhagicEscherichia coli(EHEC) and enteropathogenic Escheri-chia coli (EPEC) are attaching⁄effacing pathogens that possess a type III secretion system and deliver a variety of effectors into host cells for suc-cessful infection. EHEC produces at least 20 effector families with various functions.

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  • The cardiac hormones atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic pep-tide (brain natriuretic peptide) activate guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A⁄natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) and produce the second messenger cGMP. GC-A⁄NPRA is a member of the growing family of GC receptors.

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  • Molecular probes are useful for both studying and controlling the functions of enzymes and other proteins. The most useful probes have high affinity for their target, along with small size and resistance to degradation. Here, we report on new surrogates for nucleic acids that fulfill these criteria.

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  • A naturally occurring variant of the human androgen receptor (AR) named AR45 has been identified. It lacks the entire region encoded by exon 1 of the ARgene and is composed of the AR DNA-binding domain, hinge region and ligand-binding domain, preceded by a novel seven amino-acid long N-terminal extension. A survey of human tissues revealed that AR45 was expressed mainly in heart and skeletal muscle. In cotransfection experiments, AR45 inhibited AR function, an effect necessitating intact DNA- and ligand-binding properties. ...

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  • gp130 is the common signal transducing receptor subunit of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. gp130 either homodimerizes in response to IL-6 and IL-11 or forms heterodimers with the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor (LIFR) in response to LIF, oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) or cardiotrophinlike cytokine resulting in the onset of cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation cascades. The extracellular parts of both gp130 and LIFR consist of several Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like domains.

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  • Four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and two pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase isoforms function in adjusting the activation state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) through determining the fraction of active (non-phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase component. Necessary adaptations of PDC activity with varying meta-bolic requirements in different tissues and cell types are met by the selective expression and pronounced variation in the inherent functional properties and effector sensitivities of these regulatory enzymes. ...

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  • ATP-regenerating enzymes may have an important role in maintaining ATP levels in mitochondria-like kinetoplast organelle and glycosomes in parasitic protozoa. Adenylate kinase (AK) (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase) catalyses the reversible transfer of thec-phosphate group from ATP to AMP, releasing twomolecules ofADP. This study describes cloningand functional characterizationof the gene encoding AK2fromagenomic libraryofLeishmaniadonovaniandalso its expression in leishmania promastigote cultures.

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  • Steroids - From Physiology to Clinical Medicine covers contemporary basic science on steroids research, along with steroids practical application in clinical medicine. We start by describing physiological and pathophysiological roles of steroids, with reference to production and action of gonadal steroids, role of steroid sulfonation, sex specific and steroids-dependent mechanism of hippocampal function, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases for the modulation of tissue glucocorticoid availability.

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  • We are very pleased to launch the 23rd edition of Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology . The current authors have attempted to maintain the highest standards of excellence, accuracy, and pedagogy developed by Fran Ganong over the 46 years in which he educated countless students worldwide with this textbook. At the same time, we have been attuned to the evolving needs of both students and professors in medical physiology.

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  • THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.

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  • Một actin, adenine Một diện tích bề mặt men chuyển angiotensin chuyển đổi enzym acetyl CoA acetyl coenzyme A acetylcholine ACh hormone ACTH vỏ thượng thận CP creatine phosphate CPK creatine phosphokinase CPR hồi sức tim phổi Cr creatinine CRH corticotropin releasing hormone dịch não tủy não tủy,

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  • The authors provided evidence regarding NSAIDs mechanism of action and NSAIDs management including low-dose aspirin therapy. The discovery of safe NSAIDs with reduced upper GI toxicity such as selective COX-2 inhibitors is also presented in this chapter. Vanaskova et al., described the functional disorders of the GIT, focusing on swallowing dysfunctions in human beings. It is well known that these disorders are not only difficult to verify and quantify but also difficult to treat.

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  • The discovery of the hormone insulin by Frederick Banting and colleagues in the early 1920’s is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs and has saved millions of lives over the years. The significance of the discovery is underscored by the fact that type 1 diabetics still have an absolute requirement for daily injections of insulin to live. Clearly, today’s insulin treatments have attained levels of sophistication that have greatly improved clinical out‐ come ...

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  • Many procedures were introduced to improve the recovery of postoperative sexual function and urinary incontinence: bladder neck suspension or reconstruction (Poon et al., 2000), reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter (Rocco et al., 2007), periurethral suspension of the dorsal vein complex/urethral complex (Patel et al., 2009) and preservation of the neurovascular bundle (Kaiho et al., 2005), but have failed to solve the problems completely until now.

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  • In collaboration with the American College of Health Care Administrators (ACHCA), a web-based survey was sent to nearly half of their national LTC members by Mather Lifeways Institute on Aging in March 2005. There were respondents from 194 of these facilities across 30 states. Half of the respondents were from CCRF, while the other half were from nursing homes. This was done to determine the need for training within the LTC workforce. Questions were aimed at preparedness for public health emergencies, including the threat of bioterrorism (BT).

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  • Business Unit Cell Cybernetics, Plant Research International, Wageningen, the Netherlands; 2University of Wu¨rzburg, Chair of Food Chemistry, Germany; 3Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Failure of functional imaging with gallium-68DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide positron emission tomography to localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion: a case report

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  • The half-life of UPA is 32.4 hours, which means that most of the drug is eliminated by 1 week and the interaction with hormonal contraception is likely to be clinically insignificant by this time. If a hormonal method is quick started the CEU advises use of additional contraceptive precautions for 1 week after taking UPA plus the time required for contraceptive efficacy to be established (see Summary on page iv).

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