Hypothalamic hormones

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  • Hormones release of STH (and also other peptide hormones including insulin, glucagon, and gastrin). PRH: prolactin-RH remains to be characterized or established. Both TRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated. PRIH inhibits the release of prolactin and could be identical with dopamine. Hypothalamic releasing hormones are mostly administered (parenterally) for diagnostic reasons to test AH function. Therapeutic control of AH cells. GnRH is used in hypothalamic infertility in women to stimulate FSH and LH secretion and to induce ovulation.

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  • The peptide hormones of the anterior pituitary are essential for the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, responses to stress, and intermediary metabolism. Their synthesis and secretion are controlled by hypothalamic hormones and by hormones from the peripheral endocrine organs. A large number of disease states as well as a diverse group of drugs also affect their secretion.

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  • Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that is synthesized in and secreted from the lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. We are now aware that synthesis and secretion of prolactin is not restricted to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, but other organs and individual cells can also produce it. This book provides the headlines to follow a course of cumulated knowledge on prolactin research during the last two-three decades and it may also help us understand some of the concerns that we face today....

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  • The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is well known for its role in the control of pituitary gonadotropin secretion, but the hormone and receptor are also expressed in extrapituitary tissues and tumor cells, including epithelial ovarian cancers.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Cortisol and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones in follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive symptoms on these hormones...

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  • Recently, we identified novel avian and amphibian hypothalamic neuropeptides that inhibited gonadotropin release and stimulated growth hormone release. They were characterized by a similar structure including theC-terminal LPLRF-NH2motif. To clarify that the expression of these novel hypothalamicneuropeptides is aconservedproperty in vertebrates, we characterized a cDNA encoding a similar novel peptide, having LPLRF-NH2 from the goldfish brain, by a combination of 3¢and 5¢rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). ...

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  • We are very pleased to launch the 23rd edition of Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology . The current authors have attempted to maintain the highest standards of excellence, accuracy, and pedagogy developed by Fran Ganong over the 46 years in which he educated countless students worldwide with this textbook. At the same time, we have been attuned to the evolving needs of both students and professors in medical physiology.

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  • The Hypothalamushypophysis- gonadal (HPG) axis is subject to both positive feed-forward and negative feedback regulation at several levels. At the level of the hypothalamus, early recognition of the pulsatile nature of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion led to the notion of a central ‘‘pulse generator”, the inherent oscillatory activity of which controls the secretory rhythm of GnRH neurons (Knobil, 1980).

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  • Role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the etiology of amenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus stimulates follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the pituitary to induce ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Ovarian secretion of estradiol and progesterone controls the shedding of the endometrium, resulting in menses and, in combination with the inhibins, provides feedback regulation of the hypothalamus and pituitary to control secretion of FSH and LH.

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  • Algorithm for evaluation of amenorrhea. β-hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; PRL, prolactin; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; TSH, thyroidstimulating hormone. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Low estrogen levels in combination with normal or low levels of LH and FSH are seen with anatomic, genetic, or functional abnormalities that interfere with hypothalamic GnRH secretion or normal pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Although relatively uncommon, tumors and infiltrative diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Chap. 333).

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  • This textbook is primarily intended to provide undergraduate students of pharmacy with a clear and concise account of basic endocrine function and dysfunction, at a level sufficient to meet the requirements of first- or second year qualifying examinations. It is not intended to replace standard texts, but merely to serve as an accompaniment and convenient revision guide.

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  • A central pathway through which leptin acts to regulate appetite and body weight. Leptin signals through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus to induce increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), requiring the processing enzyme PC-1 (proenzyme convertase 1). α-MSH acts as an agonist on melanocortin-4 receptors to inhibit appetite, and the neuropeptide AgRp (Agouti-related peptide) acts as an antagonist of this receptor. Mutations that cause obesity in humans are indicated by the solid green arrows.

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  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) acting as an estrogen at the level of the hypothalamus to downregulate hypothalamic luteinizing hormone (LH) production results in decreased elaboration of testosterone by the testicle. For this reason, orchiectomy is equally as effective as moderate-dose DES, inducing responses in 80% of previously untreated patients with prostate cancer but without the prominent cardiovascular side effects of DES, including thrombosis and exacerbation of coronary artery disease.

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  • Because of the physiologic importance of maintaining energy stores, voluntary weight loss is difficult to achieve and sustain.Appetite and metabolism are regulated by an intricate network of neural and hormonal factors. The hypothalamic feeding and satiety centers play a central role in these processes (Chap. 74). Neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) induce anorexia by acting centrally on satiety centers.

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  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and II are hypothalamic deca-peptides with pivotal roles in the development of reproductive competence and regulation of reproductive events. In this study, transcriptional regula-tion of the human GnRH IIgene was investigated.

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