Immunosuppressive agents

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  • Sulfoquinovosylacylglycerols (SQAGs), in particular compounds with C18 fatty acid(s) on the glycerol moiety, may be clinically promising antitumor and⁄or immunosuppressive agents. They were found originally as inhibitors of mammalian DNA polymerases. However, SQAGs can arrest cultured mammalian cells not only at S phase but also at M phase, suggesting they have several molecular targets.

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  • Candida spp. can cause a wide variety of infections in immunosuppressed patients of long term broad – spectrum antibiotics, steroids or other immunosuppressive agents, diabetes mellitus, AIDS, Malignancy, Neutropenia. Although the majority of infections are caused by Candida albicans, Non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) species are emerging as important pathogen in humans. Our study included 130 clinical isolates which showed gram positive budding yeasts cells with or without pseudohyphae.

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  • Therapeutic immunosuppression has very broad applications in clinical medicine, ranging from prevention and treatment of organ and bone marrow transplant rejection, management of various autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), skin diseases, allergies and asthma. Whereas traditionally only a small repertoire of immunosuppressive agents was available for clinical use, recent discoveries have significantly increased the number of approved agents, resulting in numerous trials to further evaluate their potential.

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  • Adenoviruses have been recognized as opportunistic and significant viral pathogens in immunocompromised patients such as recipients of hematopoietic stem cells or other solid organs treated with immunosuppressive agents, and among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. These patients are incapable of developing a normal immune response. Reactivation of adenoviruses in the impaired immunological response leads to acute or persistent infections with high morbidity or even mortality in these patients.

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  • The evidence implicating psoriasis as a T cell–mediated disorder has directed therapeutic efforts to immunoregulation. Cyclosporine and other immunosuppressive agents can be very effective in the treatment of psoriasis, and much attention is currently directed toward the development of biologic agents with more selective immunosuppressive properties and better safety profiles (Table 53-4). Experience with these agents is limited and information regarding combination therapy and adverse events continues to emerge.

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  • Genetic deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC activity leads to a severe selective disorder of T-cell function. Therefore, potent inhibitors of mammalian PNP are expected to act as selective immunosuppressive agents against, for example, T-cell cancers and some autoimmune diseases.

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  • This woman has a combination of hemolytic anemia with fragmented RBCs on peripheral smear; thrombocytopenia; fever; neurologic symptoms; and renal dysfunction -- a classic pentad of symptoms that characterizes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Approximately 90% of patients will respond to plasmapheresis. Patient should be emergently treated with largevolume plasmapheresis. Sixty to 80 mL/kg of plasma should be removed and replaced with fresh-frozen plasma. Treatment should be continued daily until the patient is in complete remission.

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  • Respiratory disease complex: Under field conditions, pathogens often interact with not only the host (bird) and its environment, but also one another. For example, day-old chicks arriving infect- ed from the hatchery (vertical transmission) and remaining chroni- cally infected for life are susceptible to other respiratory diseases such as infectious bronchitis or Newcastle disease.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Transplant infections presents the following contents: Introduction to transplant infections, risks and epidemiology of infections after transplantation, specific sites of infection, bacterial infections.

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  • Ebook Board review series Pharmacology (Sixth edition) present the content: updated with current drug information, end-of-chapter review tests feature updated USMLE-style questions, four-color tables and figures summarize essential information for quick recall, updated drug lists for each chapter, additional USMLE-style comprehensive examination questions and explanations.

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  • This chapter provides a brief overview of the immune response as background for understanding the mechanism of action of immunomodulatory agents. The general principles of pharmacological immunosuppression are discussed in the context of potential targets, major indications, and unwanted side effects.

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  • Candidiasis: Treatment Treatment involves removing any predisposing factors such as antibiotic therapy or chronic wetness and the use of appropriate topical or systemic antifungal agents. Effective topicals include nystatin or azoles (miconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, or ketoconazole). The associated inflammatory response accompanying candidal infection on glabrous skin can be treated with a mild glucocorticoid lotion or cream (2.5% hydrocortisone).

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  • The incidence of superficial mycoses has increased recently due to frequent usage of antibiotics and various immunosuppressive conditions. In the background of immunosuppression, detection of these agents becomes necessary for effective management and prevention of further invasions. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and causative agents of superficial mycoses in order to provide early and efficient treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months (JuneAugust 2015) on patients with suspected superficial mycoses attending our Dermatology OPD.

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  • Fungal infection of nails or onychomycosis is non-life threatening disease commonly caused by dermatophytes. The infection is also caused by non dermatophytes like yeasts and non dermatophytic moulds. There are various factors which play an important role in causation of onychomycosis.

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  • Tumour stromal macrophages differentiate to tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) with characteristics of immunosuppressive M2-type macrophages, having a central role in promoting tumour vascularisation, cancer cell dissemination and in suppressing anti-cancer immune responses. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a group of drugs commonly used as anti-resorptive agents.

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