Including amplitude

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  • Physical exercise is beneficial for bone tissue health, yet its usage is limited for preventing osteoporosis. Even though natural for the bone tissue from development to homeostasis, mechanical loads present with a multitude of physical parameters, including amplitude, duration, frequency, and distribution.

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  • Multiple simultaneous beams exist when an array of N elements is connected to a beamformer with 1M beam ports, where N and 1M may be different. Multiplebeam systems have many uses: in electronic countermeasures, in satellite communications, in multiple-target radars, and in adaptive nulling, for example. The last application uses adaption in beam space as it avoids several serious difficulties that arise with adaption in array space. (Mayhan, 1972).

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  • Modulation and demodulation 5.1 MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION We start again with the ML principle defined in Section 3.1 of Chapter 3. After the signal despreading, vector of parameters θ to be estimated includes timing of the received symbols τ0 , phase of the received carrier θ0 , frequency offset of the received signal ν0 , amplitude of the signal A0 and data symbols an θ (τ0 , θ0 , ν0 , A0 , an ) After despreading, the narrowband signal can be represented as r(t) = s(t, θ ) + w(t) The likelihood becomes ˜ L(θ ) = C1 exp − C2...

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  • IMAGE QUANTIZATION Any analog quantity that is to be processed by a digital computer or digital system must be converted to an integer number proportional to its amplitude. The conversion process between analog samples and discrete-valued samples is called quantization. The following section includes an analytic treatment of the quantization process, which is applicable not only for images but for a wide class of signals encountered in image processing systems.

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  • In this chapter, we introduce the fundamentals of digital video coding which include digital video representation, rate distortion theory, and digital video formats. Also, we give a brief overview of image and video coding standards which will be discussed in the subsequent chapters. 15.1 DIGITAL VIDEO REPRESENTATION As we discussed in previous chapters, a digital image is obtained by quantizing a continuous image both spatially and in amplitude. Digitization of the spatial coordinates is called image sampling, while digitization of the amplitude is called gray-level quantization.

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  • IMAGE FEATURE EXTRACTION An image feature is a distinguishing primitive characteristic or attribute of an image. Some features are natural in the sense that such features are defined by the visual appearance of an image, while other, artificial features result from specific manipulations of an image. Natural features include the luminance of a region of pixels and gray scale textural regions. Image amplitude histograms and spatial frequency spectra are examples of artificial features.

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  • In this paper, the problem of parameters optimization of tuned mass damper for three-degree-of-freedom vibration systems is investigated using sequential quadratic programming method. The objective is to minimize the extreme vibration amplitude of vibration models. It is shown that the constrained formulation, that includes lower and upper bounds on the updating parameters in the form of inequality constraints, is important for obtaining a correct updated model.

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