Indirect impacts

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  • How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.

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  • Information and knowledge have emerged as major sources of wealth in the recent past. There is a digital revolution and it has impact and influences on the consumers, producers, investors, exporters, importers, public policy makers, academics, students, consultants, administrators, lawmakers and all others directly or indirectly involved in various processes of the new economy.

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  • Information and knowledge have emerged as major sources of wealth in the recent past. There is a digital revolution and it has impact and influences on the consumers, producers, investors, exporters, importers, public policy makers, academics, students, consultants, administrators, lawmakers and all others directly or indirectly involved in various processes of the new economy.

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  • Wind energy developments may impair the setting ofhistoric sites and can compromise the visual amenity ofthe wider landscape,detracting from historic character,sense of place,tranquillity and remoteness.In certainconditions,indirect impacts can also include noise andshadow flicker from turbines.Turbines towers are now typically in excess of 60 metres in height and may have a zone of visualinfluence more than ten kilometres in radius.

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  • Air pollution is a leading environmental threat to the health of urban populations overall and specifically to New York City residents. Clean air laws and regulations have improved the air quality in New York and most other large cities, but several pollutants in the city’s air are at levels that are harmful. This report provides estimates of the toll of air pollution on the health of New Yorkers. It focuses on 2 common air pollutants—fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).

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  • Conserving biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide is part of the larger objective of promoting human well-being and sustainable development. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005 has brought about a fundamental change in the way that scientists perceive the role and value of biodiversity, and recognizes the dynamics and linkages between people, biodiversity and ecosystems. Human activities have direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, which in turn affects the ecosystems services that they provide, and ultimately human well-being.

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  • Earnings is a measure of performance during a period that is concerned primarily with the extent to which asset inflows associated with cash-to-cash cycles substantially completed (or completed) during the period exceed (or are less than) asset inflows associated, directly or indirectly, with the same cycles. Both an entity's ongoing major or central activities and its incidental or peripheral transactions involve a number of overlapping cash-to-cash cycles of different lengths.

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  • An important qualifi cation on this theory is that high execu- tive salary needs to result in a benefi t to the society for it to be justifi ed in terms of consequentialist ethics. Increased returns to the fi rm are not suffi cient. Increased effi ciency for the fi rm is a potential justifi cation, but the effi ciency must increase social utility either directly or indirectly. Th is means that the corporation must not be engaged in a legal but socially harmful activity. Improved effi ciency for a corporation engaged in...

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  • Examples of specific studies that have documented the direct, indirect and induced impacts of public transportation investment and operating spending on region-wide jobs and wages are the Atlanta MARTA Economic Impact Study (Tanner and Jones, 2007), the Oklahoma Transit Impact Study (Johnson, 2003), the Wisconsin Transportation Impact Study (Cambridge Systematics and EDR Group, 2003) , Chicago Transit Economic Impact Study (EDR Group et al, 2007) and California High Speed Rail Environmental Impact Study (Cambridge Systematics and EDR Group, 2007). ...

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  • The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements in order to conform with generally accepted accounting principles. Changes in such estimates and assumptions may affect amounts reported in future periods. Cash flow statements Cash flow statements have been prepared under the indirect method in accordance with Dutch GAAP, which is substantially similar to the requirements of SFAS No. 95 ‘Statement of Cash flows'.

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  • This analysis represents the scale of potential impacts on the economy and not benefit/cost ratios. Specifically, economic impact studies do not account for some of the social and environmental impacts that are included in benefit/cost studies, though they do account for indirect and induced economic growth that is typically not included in benefit/cost studies. The social and environmental impacts that are not counted within the GDP impact measure include, most notably, personal time savings and emissions impacts.

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  • An important barrier to quick process changes is the industry’s slow capital-turnover rate. A survey in 1997/8 revealed that the median age of paper ma- chines in Europe was 23 years (Berkhout, 2005). Recent research undertaken in the USA suggests a potential negative correlation between environmental innovation and sunk costs. The research suggests that no matter what the regulator does, because there will be much lobbying and negotiations undertaken as a part of the permitting process, regula- tors tend to favour existing actors over potential new entrants.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome in Georgia: direct and indirect costs...

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  • Floods can cause serious indirect impacts, including damage to important energy, water, communications and transport infrastructure. They can also interfere with basic public services such as schools and hospitals. The National Flood Risk Assessment shows that a sizeable part of our important infrastructure and public services are in flood risk areas. This is especially so for water-related infrastructure that needs to be near rivers. For example, over 55 per cent of water and sewage pumping stations/treatment works are in flood risk areas, with 34 per cent at significant risk....

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  • John Hudson peered at me over his half-moons. A rm frown was on his forehead. His hands were folded rmly on his desk. ‘Say that one more time, lad’, he grunted in his familiar and frequently feared North Yorkshire accent. I gulped and let it go one more time. ‘I don’t think the work I am doing here is worthwhile. I mean, I could be researching cancer – something bene cial for mankind. But I’m working on beer – what puts bubbles on a pint, why lager tastes of sweetcorn, how to choose the best barley.

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  • Transportation project expenditures create jobs and business activity directly. An economic analysis tool called Input-Output Tables ( output_model) is used to quantify the direct and indirect jobs and business activity created by specific expenditures by tracking how dollars flow from one industry to another within a particular jurisdiction, such as a region or country. Care is needed when interpreting this information since the data are aggregated and do not necessarily reflect the specific program or project being considered.

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  • Chapter 11 - Statement of cash flows. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Indicate the primary purpose of the statement of cash flows; distinguish among operating, investing, and financing activities; explain the impact of the product life cycle on a company’s cash flows;…

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  • ABSTRACT. Scholars have long suspected that political processes such as democracy and corruption are important factors in determining economic growth. Studies show, however, that democracy has only indirect effects on growth, while corruption is generally accepted by scholars as having a direct and negative impact on economic perfor-mance.

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  • The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and the impacts of such change on human well-being, included a set of sub-global assessments at multiple spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment. This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to other international assessments, which usually focus on global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing from different perspectives and with different stakeholders involved.

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  • Increasingly consumer pull for drugs is being created indirectly also by Internet promotion, and perhaps more questionably by partnerships with patient support groups. The impact of the Internet Consumers are able to purchase all kinds of prescription drugs online often without need for a prior prescription. Research conducted by Bloom (1999) showed that most Internet pharmacies provide poor quality information, fail to have adequate safeguards to ensure medicines are dispensed correctly, and also charge more for both products and services.

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