Kiến trúc máy tính cs2009

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  • Introduction: CPU performance factors: Instruction count: Determined by ISA and compiler. CPI and Cycle time: Determined by CPU hardware. We will examine two MIPS implementations: A simplified version, A more realistic pipelined version. Simple subset, shows most aspects: Memory reference: lw, sw, Arithmetic/logical: add, sub, and, or, slt.

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  • Principle of Locality: Programs access a small proportion of their address space at any time. Temporal locality: Items accessed recently are likely to be accessed again soon, e.g., instructions in a loop, induction variables. Spatial locality: Items near those accessed recently are likely to be accessed soon, E.g., sequential instruction access, array data.

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  • Instruction Set: The repertoire of instructions of a computer. Different computers have different instruction sets. But with many aspects in common. Early computers had very simple instruction sets. Simplified implementation. Many modern computers also have simple instruction sets.

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  • Arithmetic for Computers: Operations on integers: Addition and subtraction, Multiplication and division, Dealing with overflow. Floating-point real numbers: Representation and operations.

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  • The Computer Revolution: Progress in computer technology: Underpinned by Moore’s Law. Makes novel applications feasible: Computers in automobiles, Cell phones, Human genome project, World Wide Web, Search Engines. Computers are pervasive.

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