Kraft pulping

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  • The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold. and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. were investigated. The differences in terms of chemical composition and fiber properties between the heartwood and sapwood of these species were also examined.

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  • Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) added kraft pulping was performed using European aspen (Populus tremula L.) chips and the effects of the NaBH4 addition on the physical and optical properties of pulps and resultant papers were investigated.

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  • An integrated gasification process was developed for an Ohio-based kraft pulp mill to produce liquid transportation fuels from biomass and coal. Black liquor byproduct from the pulp mill is co-gasified with coal to generate high quality syngas for further synthesis to dimethyl ether (DME) and/or Fischer-Tropsch fuels. A Texaco gasifier was chosen as the focal point for this design. Whenever possible, energy is recovered throughout to generate heat, steam, and power. Mass and energy balances were performed for individual process components and the entire design.

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  • In order to lower bleaching costs, various prebleaching methods have been investigated. In the current work 3 prebleaching methods, peroxyformic acid, oxygen, and xylanase, were investigated in bamboo and hardwood kraft pulp produced by Kharnaphuli Paper Mills. Among these 3 methods, peroxyformic acid showed the most promising results.

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  • The addition of a laccase inducer, xylidine, into the culture medium of T. versicolor led to an increase in dechlorination activity. In the experiment performed to find out the role of laccase activity in dechlorination reactions, a considerable reduction in the dissolved oxygen concentration due to laccase-dependent dechlorination activity was observed.

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  • In this study, the chemical composition, fiber morphology, pulp, and paper properties of the pomegranate tree (Punica granatum L.) were determined. Stem and branch wood were analyzed separately.

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  • Different pulping processes, kraft-anthraquinone (AQ), bio-kraft, soda-AQ, ALCELL, and FORMACELL were studied for wheat straw. Fungal pre-treatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, white rot fungi, was applied to wheat straw before kraft-AQ pulping, the so-called bio-kraft process.

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  • High cooking temperature and thus high pressure is needed when alcohols are used as cooking chemicals. Methanol has been used as an additive in kraft, sulphite and soda pulping. However, the use of methanol may be hazardous, since methanol is a highly flammable and toxic chemical. Demonstration plants using the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol process (ASAM) (Patt & Kordsachia 1986, Khristova et al. 2002, Patt et al. 1999) and the soda pulping method with methanol (Organocell) (Schroeter & Dahlmann 1991) have been built.

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  • This paper’s focus is the pulp and paper industry, narrowly defined. The paper does not deal with broader sustainability issues regarding paper production and use, and also does not consider for ‘disruptive’ forms of innovation, such as innovations in the nanotech- nology and biotechnology sectors which are looking for alternatives to wood based pa- per. Prior to addressing the main question of this study, the next section of this paper exam- ines technical and environmental change in the pulp and paper sector in more detail. ...

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  • With combined power and heat generation (cogeneration) the waste heat incurred during engine operation is recovered and utilized to satisfy thermal system process requirements for low- grade steam and/or hot water. In many cases this utilization of waste heat results in overall systems of efficiencies of up to 90+% (thermal + electrical). This efficient form of energy conversion is able to achieve primary energy savings of about 40% using gas engine cogeneration systems, compared with conventional separate power and heat generation.

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  • In this work, a number of handsheets made from unbeaten and unbleached kraft, refiner mechanical and cotton linter pulps and crack propagations on paper samples under monotonic loading, were analyzed and possible links with the properties of fibrous networks were investigated.

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  • CEF’s assumptions about production growth in the pulp and paper sector drive the expected increase in energy consumption despite the trend of decreasing energy intensity. CEF projections are also based on the assumption that Kraft/sulfite pulping will increase from an 83.7 percent market share in 1994 to an 88.7 percent market share by 2020, with mechanical pulping dropping from 9.6 percent to 5.7 percent, and semi-chemical pulping dropping from 6.7 percent to 5.6 percent.

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