# Lecture Thermodynamics

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• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 1 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 1 - Introduction and basic concepts. The objectives of Chapter 1 are to: Identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through the precise definition of basic concepts to form a sound foundation for the development of the principles of thermodynamics; review the metric SI and the English unit systems that will be used throughout the text; explain the basic concepts of thermodynamics such as system, state, state postulate, equilibrium, process, and cycle; review concepts of temperature, temperature scales, pressure, and absolute and gage pressure.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 4 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 4 - Energy analysis of closed systems. The objectives of Chapter 4 are to: Examine the moving boundary work or P dV work commonly encountered in reciprocating devices such as automotive engines and compressors, identify the first law of thermodynamics as simply a statement of the conservation of energy principle for closed (fixed mass) systems, develop the general energy balance applied to closed systems,...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 6 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. In this chapter, the thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are introduced first. Various statements of the second law are followed by a discussion of perpetualmotion machines and the thermodynamic temperature scale. The Carnot cycle is introduced next, and the Carnot principles are discussed. Finally, the idealized Carnot heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are examined.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 7 (Part 1) - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. The objectives of Chapter 7 are to: Apply the second law of thermodynamics to processes; define a new property called entropy to quantify the second-law effects; establish the increase of entropy principle; Calculate the entropy changes that take place during processes for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal gases.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 8 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 8 - Exergy: A measure of work potential. In this chapter, we examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics. We start our discussions with the introduction of exergy (also called availability), which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the system at a given state in a specified environment, and we continue with the reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system undergoes a process between two specified states.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 12 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 12 - Thermodynamic property relations. The objectives of Chapter 12 are to: Develop fundamental relations between commonly encountered thermodynamic properties and express the properties that cannot be measured directly in terms of easily measurable properties; develop the Maxwell relations, which form the basis for many thermodynamic relations;...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 16 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 16 - Chemical and phase equilibrium. The objectives of Chapter 16 are to: Develop the equilibrium criterion for reacting systems based on the second law of thermodynamics; develop a general criterion for chemical equilibrium applicable to any reacting system based on minimizing the Gibbs function for the system; define and evaluate the chemical equilibrium constant;...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics

In mechanics we deal with quantities such as mass, position, velocity, acceleration, energy, momentum, etc. Question: What happens to the energy of a ball when we drop it on the floor? Answer: It goes into heat energy. Question: What is heat energy?

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 15 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 15 - Chemical reactions. The objectives of Chapter 15 are to: Give an overview of fuels and combustion; apply the conservation of mass to reacting systems to determine balanced reaction equations; define the parameters used in combustion analysis, such as air–fuel ratio, percent theoretical air, and dew-point temperature;...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 2 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 2 - Energy, energy transfer, and general energy analysis. The objectives of Chapter 2 are to: Introduce the concept of energy and define its various forms; discuss the nature of internal energy; define the concept of heat and the terminology associated with energy transfer by heat; discuss the three mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation; define the concept of work, including electrical work and several forms of mechanical work;...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 3 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 3 - Properties of pure substances. We start this chapter with the introduction of the concept of a pure substance and a discussion of the physics of phase-change processes. We then illustrate the various property diagrams and P-v-T surfaces of pure substances. After demonstrating the use of the property tables, the hypothetical substance ideal gas and the ideal-gas equation of state are discussed.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 5 (Part 1) - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 5 (Part 1) - Mass and energy analysis of control volumes. We start this chapter with the development of the general conservation of mass relation for control volumes, and we continue with a discussion of flow work and the energy of fluid streams.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e) - Chapter 5 (Part 2) - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 5 (Part 2) - Mass and energy analysis of control volumes. The objectives of this chapter are to: Solve energy balance problems for common steady-flow devices such as nozzles, compressors, turbines, throttling valves, mixers, heaters, and heat exchangers; apply the energy balance to general unsteady-flow processes with particular emphasis on the uniform-flow process as the model for commonly encountered charging and discharging processes.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 9 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 9 - Gas power cycles. The objectives of Chapter 9 are to: Evaluate the performance of gas power cycles for which the working fluid remains a gas throughout the entire cycle; develop simplifying assumptions applicable to gas power cycles, review the operation of reciprocating engines, analyze both closed and open gas power cycles,...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 10 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 10 - Vapor and combined power cycles. In Chapter 9 we discussed gas power cycles for which the working fluid remains a gas throughout the entire cycle. In this chapter, we consider vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is alternatively vaporized and condensed. We also consider power generation coupled with process heating called cogeneration.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 11 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 11 - Refrigeration cycles. The objectives of Chapter 11 are to: Introduce the concepts of refrigerators and heat pumps and the measure of their performance, analyze the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, analyze the actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, review the factors involved in selecting the right refrigerant for an application,...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 13 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 13 - Gas mixtures. The objectives of Chapter 13 are to: Develop rules for determining nonreacting gas mixture properties from knowledge of mixture composition and the properties of the individual components; define the quantities used to describe the composition of a mixture, such as mass fraction, mole fraction, and volume fraction; apply the rules for determining mixture properties to idealgas mixtures and real-gas mixtures;...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 14 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 14 - Gas-vapor mixtures and air-conditioning. In this chapter, we consider the air–water-vapor mixture, which is the most commonly encountered gas–vapor mixture in practice. We also discuss air-conditioning, which is the primary application area of air–water-vapor mixtures.

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 17 - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 17 - Compressible flow. The objectives of Chapter 17 are to: Develop the general relations for compressible flows encountered when gases flow at high speeds, introduce the concepts of stagnation state, speed of sound, and Mach number for a compressible fluid, develop the relationships between the static and stagnation fluid properties for isentropic flows of ideal gases,...

• ### Lecture Thermodynamics: An engineering approach (8/e): Chapter 7 (Part 2) - Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles

Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Examine a special class of idealized processes, called isentropic processes, and develop the property relations for these processes; derive the reversible steady-flow work relations; develop the isentropic efficiencies for various steady-flow devices; introduce and apply the entropy balance to various systems.