Lighting levels

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  • For simple applications, switching devices such as contactors or solid-state relays can be used to control electrical power. The electrical power in a process can be regulated by varying the ON and OFF times of these devices. But in many processes this provision of energy in large blocks will cause significant variations in the process output. As an example, it would not be possible to control lighting levels simply by using such two-state on/off switching elements. Neither could good temperature controllers be implemented in this way...

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  • Television is a means of changing patterns of light into electrical signals for storage or transmission and then recreating those patterns on a screen. In order to do this well, the television camera must be presented with properly illuminated scenes. The three important considerations are overall level, contrast range, and color temperature. Level Lighting levels for television are generally set by adjusting the incident light, or the light striking the subject.

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  • Optimal production results depend crucially on the level of employee commitment. Correct lighting helps boost motivation, prevents fatigue, maintains health and guards against accidents at work. According to DIN EN 12464-1 “Lighting of indoor work places”, the objectives of lighting are to ensure visual comfort and visual performance.

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  • Street lighting and other forms of exterior lighting normally found in cities ensure that the basic requirements of residents and visitors are met: an adequate level of lighting facilitates orientation and provides security after dark.

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  • Semiconductor nanostructures are currently one of the largest and most exciting areas in solid state physics. Low-dimensional electron systems (realized in semiconductor quantum structures) are particularly appealing because they allow one to study many-particle effects in reduced dimensions. Inelastic light scattering gives direct access to the elementary excitations of those systems.

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  • Brillouin scattering was discovered in 1922 by Louis Brillouin [1]. It is one of a number of characteristic scattering phenomena that occur when light interacts with solid, liquid or gaseous media and corresponds to the scattering of light from thermally-induced acoustical waves (propagating pressure/density waves) present in media at all temperatures. At normal light levels the amount of scattering is small. The characteristics of the scattering can offer interesting information about the properties of the medium (temperature, pressure) and form the basis for remote fibre sensor devices.

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  • In Vietnam, the quality of tuna caught by handlines with artifi cial lights seemed to have declined compared with those caught by longlines. In order to determine the main causes of such phenomenon, surveys were conducted by interviewing concerned fi shers while four trials were also conducted on tuna fi shing boats, namely: absolute blooding out of catch, changing lights power, changing lines hauling speed, and fi shers’ normal practice of handling (as control).

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  • Optical bistability (OB) of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium placed in a conventional unidirectional ring cavity is investigated numerically. The medium is excited by a coupling and probe laser lights via a five-level cascade scheme. It is shown that optical bistabe states with controllable switching threshold intensities and width are established simultaneously in three spectral regions corresponding to EIT windows. The current numerical result is compared to a previous analytical result showing influence of coherence terms neglected in the analytical model.

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  • Using density-matrix theory, an analytical expression of the self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient of a three-level lambda EIT medium for a weak probe light is derived. Influences of the coupling light and Doppler broadening on the self-Kerr coefficient are investigated and compared to experimental observation with a good agreement. The selfKerr nonlinearity of the medium is modified and greatly enhanced in the spectral region of EIT window.

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  • In the framework of the semiclassical theory, we develop an analytical approach on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the medium that consists of the ve-level cascade scheme of cold 85Rb atoms. In the weak eld limit of the probe light, an analytical representation of EIT spectra has been derived for the rst time. Signatures of EIT spectra, including transparency eciency, have been investigated. Our theoretical results agree well with experimental observations.

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  • This book is designed to serve as a first course in an electrical engineering or an electrical engineering and computer science curriculum, providing students at the sophomore level a transition from the world of physics to the world of electronics and computation. The book attempts to satisfy two goals: Combine circuits and electronics into a single, unified treatment, and establish a strong connection with the contemporary worlds of both digital and analog systems

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  • Introduction 1 Ideal Diode 1 Semiconductor Materials 3 Energy Levels 6 Extrinsic Materials—n- and p-Type 7 Semiconductor Diode 10 Resistance Levels 17 Diode Equivalent Circuits 24 Diode Specification Sheets 27 Transition and Diffusion Capacitance 31 Reverse Recovery Time 32 Semiconductor Diode Notation 32 Diode Testing 33 Zener Diodes 35 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 38 Diode Arrays—Integrated Circuits 42 PSpice Windows 43

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  • I started my first photobiological research project almost exactly 50 years ago, in the spring of 1957. My scientific interest ever since has been focused on photobiology in its many aspects. Because I have been employed as a botanist, my own research has dealt with the photobiology of plants, but throughout this time I have been interested in other aspects, such as vision, the photobiology of skin, and bioluminescence. A first edition of the present book was published in 2002, but this second edition is much expanded and completely updated.

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  • A primary purpose in creating this 3rd Edition is the addition of a stair design component. Over many years as a design studio teacher and critic, I have been regularly reminded of the significant difficulty that many students have in learning to design and draw stairs correctly. From a design perspective, stairs are among the more complex elements within buildings, particularly when there are multiple levels to be accommodated and/or complex building configurations to be considered.

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  • Over the last few years, there has been a convergence between the fields of ultrafast science, nonlinear optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. These fields have been developing largely independently since the birth of the laser, reaching remarkable levels of performance.

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  • More precisely, he insists on the fundamental role of the sudden appearance of the rain that literally ‘irradiates’ the frame with an inexplicable but vibrating light. The rain becomes a ‘golden rain’, similar to the golden background of the icons, and transcends the cinematic image until a real transfiguration arises. Tarkovsky’s cinematic gesture in this shot is then similar to the one of religious painters. But Tarkovsky creates a specific cinematic icon since the icon appears within a temporality.

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  • On a regional average, in countries that witnessed uprisings or popular movements - there are slight gender differences between men’s and women’s uses of social media during the “Arab spring” according to the survey respondents. While the top two uses of social media were for the purpose of raising awareness and spreading information about the events related to uprisings and revolutions, a slightly larger percentage of men than women used social media for these purposes.

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  • our portfolio of brands includes rowe, Clayton Marcus and robin Bruce – each with a distinctive styling and set of features that sets it apart from other custom-order upholstery collections. The unified vision across the portfolio of brands is a high level of design, customer service, quality and reliability. our intention is to be a great home furnishings resource offering you a selection of styling, from contemporary to traditional to eclectic chic.

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  • An important feature in many countries is the role of securitization in the lending and housing prices boom and burst. At the macroeconomic level, the dynamics of the relationship between lending, housing prices and securitization have been largely unexplored although a rising interest has recently emerged with the financial crisis.

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  • This introduction to Evidence-Based Dentistry provides a much-needed orientation in the subject for students and professionals alike. It is a ground-level book for those seeking to understand evidence-based dentistry and its significance for clinical practice. The book is anchored in the dental literature: the majority of the chapters offer guidance on interpreting a full published paper; where both the subject of the paper and the study design is of relevance to the field of dentistry.

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