Linguistic approaches

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  • In 2013, Cuong and Kreinovich defined picture fuzzy set (PFS) which is a direct extension of fuzzy set (FS) and intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS). Wang et al. (2014) proposed intuitionistic linguistic number (ILN) as a combination of IFS and linguistic approach. Motivated by PFS and linguistic approach, this paper introduces the concept of picture linguistic number (PLN), which constitutes a generalization of ILN for picture circumstances.

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  • The book is divided into four main parts: key issues in researching language learning/teaching, data collection, data analysis and writing up research. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies are discussed, alongside popular mixed-methods approaches, such as triangulated studies, thus covering many of the methods commonly employed in the field.

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  • The umbrella term Social Sciences and Humanities refers to a plurality of fields outside the Natural or Physical Sciences. Disciplines as different as anthropology, archeology, architecture, art, cultural studies, economics, education, geography and environmental studies, history, law, languages and linguistics, political science, philosophy, psychology, sociology or translation studies, all share the concern for human relations and socio-cultural practices.

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  • This Second Edition of the foundational textbook "An Introduction to Applied Linguistics" provides a state-of-the-art account of contemporary applied linguistics. The kinds of language problems of interest to applied linguists are discussed and a distinction drawn between the different research approach taken by theoretical linguists and by applied linguists to what seem to be the same problems.

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  • We present B EETLE II, a tutorial dialogue system designed to accept unrestricted language input and support experimentation with different tutorial planning and dialogue strategies. Our first system evaluation used two different tutorial policies and demonstrated that the system can be successfully used to study the impact of different approaches to tutoring. In the future, the system can also be used to experiment with a variety of natural language interpretation and generation techniques.

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  • While it is generally accepted that many translation phenomena are correlated with linguistic structures, employing linguistic syntax for translation has proven a highly non-trivial task. The key assumption behind many approaches is that translation is guided by the source and/or target language parse, employing rules extracted from the parse tree or performing tree transformations. These approaches enforce strict constraints and might overlook important translation phenomena that cross linguistic constituents. ...

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  • In this work I address the challenge of augmenting n-gram language models according to prior linguistic intuitions. I argue that the family of hierarchical Pitman-Yor language models is an attractive vehicle through which to address the problem, and demonstrate the approach by proposing a model for German compounds. In an empirical evaluation, the model outperforms the Kneser-Ney model in terms of perplexity, and achieves preliminary improvements in English-German translation.

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  • With the availability of large treebanks, retrieval techniques for highly structured data now become essential. In this contribution, we investigate the efficient retrieval of MT structures at the cost of a complex index--the Treegram Index. We illustrate our approach with the VENONA retrieval system, which handles the BH t (Biblia Hebraica transeripta) treebank comprising 508,650 phrase structure trees with maximum degree eight and maximum height 17, containing altogether 3.3 million Old-Hebrew words.

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  • This paper discusses the task of formulating a model of linguistic performance and proposes an approach toward this goal that is oriented toward an embodiment of the model as a digital-computer program. The methodology of current linguistic theory is criticized for several of its features that render it inapplicable to a realistic model of performance, and remedies for these deficiencies are proposed.

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  • In this paper, we propose a computational approach to generate neologisms consisting of homophonic puns and metaphors based on the category of the service to be named and the properties to be underlined. We describe all the linguistic resources and natural language processing techniques that we have exploited for this task.

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  • A number of approaches to Automatic MT Evaluation based on deep linguistic knowledge have been suggested. However, n-gram based metrics are still today the dominant approach. The main reason is that the advantages of employing deeper linguistic information have not been clarified yet. In this work, we propose a novel approach for meta-evaluation of MT evaluation metrics, since correlation cofficient against human judges do not reveal details about the advantages and disadvantages of particular metrics. ...

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  • Pure statistical parsing systems achieves high in-domain accuracy but performs poorly out-domain. In this paper, we propose two different approaches to produce syntactic dependency structures using a large-scale hand-crafted HPSG grammar. The dependency backbone of an HPSG analysis is used to provide general linguistic insights which, when combined with state-of-the-art statistical dependency parsing models, achieves performance improvements on out-domain tests.

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  • We present new statistical models for jointly labeling multiple sequences and apply them to the combined task of partof-speech tagging and noun phrase chunking. The model is based on the Factorial Hidden Markov Model (FHMM) with distributed hidden states representing partof-speech and noun phrase sequences. We demonstrate that this joint labeling approach, by enabling information sharing between tagging/chunking subtasks, outperforms the traditional method of tagging and chunking in succession.

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  • The paper describes a novel computational tool for multiple concept learning. Unlike previous approaches, whose major goal is prediction on unseen instances rather than the legibility of the output, our MPD (Maximally Parsimonious Discrimination) program emphasizes the conciseness and intelligibility of the resultant class descriptions, using three intuitive simplicity criteria to this end. We illustrate MPD with applications in componential analysis (in lexicology and phonology), language typology, and speech pathology. ...

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  • This paper examines efficient predictive broadcoverage parsing without dynamic programming. In contrast to bottom-up methods, depth-first top-down parsing produces partial parses that are fully connected trees spanning the entire left context, from which any kind of non-local dependency or partial semantic interpretation can in principle be read. We contrast two predictive parsing approaches, topdown and left-corner parsing, and find both to be viable.

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  • To acquire noun phrases from running texts is useful for many applications, such as word grouping, terminology indexing, etc. The reported literatures adopt pure probabilistic approach, or pure rule-based noun phrases grammar to tackle this problem. In this paper, we apply a probabilistic chunker to deciding the implicit boundaries of constituents and utilize the linguistic knowledge to extract the noun phrases by a finite state mechanism.

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  • Concerning different approaches to automatic PoS tagging: EngCG-2, a constraintbased morphological tagger, is compared in a double-blind test with a state-of-the-art statistical tagger on a common disambiguation task using a common tag set. The experiments show that for the same amount of remaining ambiguity, the error rate of the statistical tagger is one order of magnitude greater than that of the rule-based one. The two related issues of priming effects compromising the results and disagreement between human annotators are also addressed. ...

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  • A semi-automatic procedure of linguistic knowledge acquisition is proposed, which combines corpus-based techniques with the conventional rule-based approach. The rule-based component generates all the possible hypotheses of defects which the existing linguistic knowledge might contain, when it fails to parse a sentence. The rule-based component does not try to identify the defects, but generates a set of hypotheses and the corpus-based component chooses the plausible ones among them.

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  • As in many other disciplines, research methodology in language program evaluation is classified into different paradigms by different scholars. No matter what classification each researcher follows, research in language program evaluation can be conducted according to two general approaches: positivistic/quantitative and naturalistic/qualitative.

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  • Critical applied linguistics is not yet a term that has wide currency. What is Critical Applied Linguistics? Is it an approach, a theory or a discipline? Simply put, it is a critical approach to applied linguistics. Such an understanding, however, leads to several further questions: What is applied linguistics? What is meant by “critical”? Is critical applied linguistics merely the addition of a critical approach to applied linguistics? Or is it something more?

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