Material Constituents

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  • In the last decade, we have witnessed a rapid growth in research and development of nanotechnology, especially nanostructured materials. Nanoporous materials as an important class of nanostructured materials possess high specific surface area, large pore volume, uniform pore size, and rich surface chemistry. These materials present great promises and opportunities for a new generation of functional materials with improved and tailorable properties for applications in adsorption, membranes, sensors, energy storage, catalysis and photocatalysis, and biotechnology, etc.

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  • Whatever the context, be it solid, liquid, or some transitionary setting, materials science seeks an understanding of a material's macromolecular structure and properties by drawing on knowledge of its atomic and molecular constituents. Until recently, the term ''materials science'' was used primarily to denote empirical study, fundamental research, synthesis, a

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  • Gracilaria lemaneiformis is a common red alga used as a raw material source for the agar industry. Its extract is rich in natural volatile constituents (VCs) having antioxidant activities. Herein, a sustainable method was used to recover VCs from the alga.

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  • There are two basic approaches of synthesizing nanowires: top-down and bottom-up pproach. In a top-down approach a large piece of material is cut down to small pieces hrough different means such as lithography and electrophoresis. In a bottom-up approach he nanowire is synthesized by the combination of constituent ad-atoms. Most of the ynthesis techniques nowadays are based on bottom-up approaches.

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  • Progress of thermodynamics has been stimulated by the fi ndings of a variety of fi elds of science and technology. In the nineteenth century, studies on engineering problems, effi ciency of thermal machines, lead to the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics. Following development of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics allowed us to understand thermodynamics on the basis of the properties of constituent molecules.

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  • Common engineering materials reach in many engineering applications such as automotive or aerospace; their limits and new developments are required to fulfill increasing demands on performance and characteristics. The properties of mate- rials can be increased, for example, by combining different materials to achieve better properties than a single constituent or by shaping the material or constituents in a specific structure. Many of these new materials reveal a much more complex behavior than traditional engineering materials due to their advanced structure or composition.

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  • Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others.

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  • The Presence of Hydrodynamics in Modern Sciences: Optimizing Methods and Tools “Water is the beginning of everything” (Tales of Mileto) “Air is the beginning of everything” (Anaxímenes of Mileto) Why is it important to study Hydrodynamics? The answer may be strictly technical, but it may also involve some kind of human feeling about our environment, and our (eventual) limitations to deal with its fluidic constituents.

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  • Why is it important to study Hydrodynamics? The answer may be strictly technical, but it may also involve some kind of human feeling about our environment and our (eventual) limitations to deal with its fluidic constituents. As teachers, when talking to our students about the importance of quantifying fluids, we (authors) go to the blackboard and draw, in blue color, a small circumference in the center of the board, and add the obvious name 'Earth'.

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  • The vital condition for the practical applicability of any control system is that its basic characteristics are invariant to variations of its constituent parameters and to external disturbances, at least in some well-defined range. This is considered as Robustness, and the design of control systems with prescribed performance and stability limits is the subject of Robust Control.

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  • (bq) part 2 book "process planning and cost estimation" has contents: standard data, materials available to develop an estimate, methods of estimates, estimating procedure, constituents of a job estimate, allowances in estimation,...and other contents.

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  • Structural Characterization of Crystalline and Non-crystalline Materials – A Brief Background of Current Requirements The X-ray powder diffraction technique is a well-established and widely used method for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of various substances in a variety of states (see, for example, [1]). However, in a multi-component mixture with a relatively complicated chemical composition, we frequently find difficulty in identifying the individual chemical constituents by the conventional X-ray powder diffraction method.

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  • Furthermore metals are not renewable, although their reserves may last for several hundred years. Therefore, in general terms, in order to reduce the environmental impacts of metals, the most straightforward criteria would be to reduce the amount of metals used in favour of wood (-based) materials. Increasing the share of recycled materials in metal also considerably reduces the energy needed to produce steel and aluminium. For example the energy needed to produce 1kg of 100%-recycled aluminium is approximately 10% of that needed for the production of primary aluminium.

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  • From the root of Calotropis gigantea, six compounds were isolated: 12-O-benzoyllineolon (1), 12-O-benzoyldeacetylmetaplexigenin (2), calotropone (3), 2,3-dimethoxyphenol (4), 2,5- dimethoxyphenol (5), 2-formyl-5-hydroxymethylfuran (6). The chemical structure of these compounds were elucidated by their NMR spectra and comparison with references.

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  • This building technique was adopted in the predigital era by architects such as Le Corbusier. The roof of the chapel at Ronchamp, for example­ likened to an airplane wing by the architect-is designed and built as a series of structural concrete ribs, tied together laterally by crossbeams. A paper model of the roof clearly shows the intentions for the internal construction.

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  • This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the buckling and postbuckling of functionally graded cylindrical shells subjected to axial and transverse mechanical loads incorporating the effects of temperature. Material properties are assumed to be temperature independent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents.

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  • In the present paper the non-linear buckling analysis of functionally graded spherical shells subj ected to external pressure is investigated. The material properties are graded in the t hickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents of the material. In t he formulation of governing equations geometric non-linearity in all strain-displacement relations of the shell is considered.

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  • This paper investigates postbuckling behavior of thick FGM cylindrical panels resting on elastic foundations and subjected to thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical loading conditions. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents.

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  • Research paper on chemical composition of essential oil of leaves and willow tree Bailloni was obtained in Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park in March 2007 to assess the content of essential oils according to fresh materials; Main constituents of essential oil of leaves and branches of the Bailoni willow species.

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  • The rare-earth-free hard magnetic material MnBi is potential for permanent magnet high-temperature applications with the ferromagnetic phase formed at low temperature (noted as a Low Temperature Phase – LTP). Up to now, the MnBi powders with high LTP content and coercivity have usually been prepared using the melt-spinning technique. However, the large difference in the melting temperature Tm of the two constituents, Mn and Bi, and the strong reactivity of Bi with the copper-based wheel make the preparation of high-performance MnBi ribbons to be difficult.

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