Measured accurately

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  • Environmental and lifestyle risk factors provide a piece of the risk assessment puzzle as well, but since they change over time and are often difficult to measure, they don’t provide all of the information. Lastly, genetic risk factors can be measured accurately and do not change over time. Since genetic data is personalized, this kind of risk assessment may provide additional incentive to change behavior. As more genetic risk factors are being identified, it is clear that their effects on disease risk are just as significant as the effects of environment and family history.

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  • In this work we address the task of computerassisted assessment of short student answers. We combine several graph alignment features with lexical semantic similarity measures using machine learning techniques and show that the student answers can be more accurately graded than if the semantic measures were used in isolation. We also present a first attempt to align the dependency graphs of the student and the instructor answers in order to make use of a structural component in the automatic grading of student answers. ...

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  • The definition of combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) in the literature varies quite a bit from author to author. However, the differences between the definitions are important in terms of the language classes of each CCG. We prove that a wide range of CCGs are strongly context-free, including the CCG of CCGbank and of the parser of Clark and Curran (2007). In light of these new results, we train the PCFG parser of Petrov and Klein (2007) on CCGbank and achieve state of the art results in supertagging accuracy, PARSEVAL measures and dependency accuracy. ...

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  • The provision of relevant, accurate and timely performance information is essential for assuring and improving the performance of health systems. Citizens, patients, governments, politicians, policy-makers, managers and clinicians all need such information in order to assess whether health systems are operating as well as they should and to identify where there is scope for improvement.

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  • Difficult to measure accurately and deal with effectively, organic pollutants continue to be a major hazard in the environment. Significantly expanded, the second edition of Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective describes the mechanistic basis of ecotoxicology, using major groups of pollutants as illustrative examples, and explores the problem of complex mixtures of chemicals.

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  • Standard laboratory methods for measurement of soil nitrate (NO3–N) use various procedures and instruments to analyze soil samples taken from the field and transported to the laboratory. Concerns with these procedures range from delays in measurement time, the high cost of soil sampling and analysis, high labour requirements, and the need to aggregate samples. With recent advances in using the ion-selective electrode, as presented in this chapter, soil NO3–N can now be measured directly, rapidly, accurately, at low cost, at a fine scale, and in real-time right in the field....

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  • The development of a respiratory tract model which accurately reflects reality is a difficult and complicated effort. This stems largely from the variety of airway shapes, airflow patterns, and cell types having different radiosensitivities. Anatomic and physiologic alterations in smokers or those exposed to chemicals, among others, further complicate modeling. In spite of the inherent difficulties, the continuing pursuit of a model that mimics actual conditions has been considered to be important by those involved in radiation protection....

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  • We studied four types of decisions with a potential for age effects. One feature of wisdom, which presumably is acquired over a lifetime, is meta-knowledge, accurately knowing one's own knowledge and abilities. We assessed this with self-reported confidence on answers to trivia questions. A common stereotype of older people is that they are “conservative, dislike taking risk and are “set in their ways”. We tested this stereotype using choices over monetary gambles similar to those performed by psychologists and biologists .

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  • THE outward guise assumed by the questions with which banking and currency policy is concerned changes from month to month and from year to year. Amid this flux, the theoretical apparatus which enables us to deal with these questions remains unaltered. In fact, the value of economics lies in its enabling us to recognize the true significance ofproblems, divested of their accidental trimmings.

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  • Accurate network trac measurement is required for ac- counting, bandwidth provisioning and detecting DoS at- tacks. These applications see the trac as a collection of flows they need to measure. As link speeds and the number of flows increase, keeping a counter for each flow is too ex- pensive (using SRAM) or slow (using DRAM). The current state-of-the-art methods (Cisco's sampled NetFlow) which log periodically sampled packets are slow, inaccurate and resource-intensive.

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  • The company’s key measures included Combined Ratio (a measure of profitability) and policies in force (units sold) and pure premium (cost per unit). In addition to these measure, I used many internal measures to assess individual, team and process effectiveness Over the years, I’ve found it very helpful to think of two flavors of measures. 1) Diagnostics: Diagnostics measure internal processes. Managers need a set of diagnostics to accurately assess their team’s effectiveness.

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  • The fourth, fifth and sixth columns show the results of the models estimated using instrumental variables. The fourth column shows the results of using household assets as instruments, while controlling for community fixed effects. The fifth column also uses household assets as instruments but it conditions on a wide set of community characteristics instead of using community fixed effects. The last column uses average wages in the municipality as instruments.

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  • The Defence Procurement Agency (DPA), part of the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD), measures its annual performance against five key targets for its top 20 projects (by value), as documented in its Major Project Reports. Key Target 2 addresses programme slippage, which is the delay between the promised in-service date and the actual or projected in-service date. The MOD 2001/2002 performance report indicates slippage for the top 20 projects averaged approximately one year. Furthermore, the existences of...

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  • Ideally, civil registration systems with good attribution of cause of death provide accurate data on the level of maternal mortality and the causes of maternal deaths. In countries with incomplete civil registration systems, it is difficult to measure accurately the levels of maternal mortality. First, it is challenging to identify maternal deaths precisely, as the deaths of women of reproductive age might not be recorded at all.

    pdf102p nhamnhiqa 01-03-2013 31 1   Download

  • Chapter 17 - Unemployment: meaning and measurement. The following will be discussed in this chapter: Measurement of unemployment, incidence and duration of unemployment, Canadian unemployment trends, does unemployment rate accurately reflect hardship?

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  • There are only a few studies on calf muscle strength in patients with Achilles tendon disorders. Calf muscle strength has been measured after rehabilitation in pa- tients with surgically treated complete Achilles tendon ruptures4,14,15,17 and in patients with complete Achilles tendon ruptures treated either surgically or nonsurgi- cally.

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  • At the beginning, specialists tried to diagnose the stage of periodontal disease depending on the relation between the clinical appearances and the presence of some specific cell populations or specific matrix components (Havemose-Poulsen & Holmstrup, 1997; Romanos et al., 1993).

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  • Temperature measurement and control are vital in many industrial processes. Accurate control of the temperature is essential in nearly all chemical processes. In some applications, an accuracy of around 5-10~ may be acceptable. There are also some industrial applications which require better than 4-1 ~ accuracy.

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  • The accurate measurement of additives in food is essential in meeting both regulatory requirements and the need of consumers for accurate information about the products they eat. While there are established methods of analysis for many food additives, there are others that still require complete methods. Analytical Methods for Food Additives addresses the lack of established methods of analysis for 26 major additives. In each case, the authors review current research to establish the best available methods and how they should be used.

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  • CHAPTER 13 Hedge Fund Indices: In Search of a Benchmark. Hedge fund indices are gaining more notoriety than ever as investors seek ways to benefit from the usefulness of an accurate benchmark by which to measure investment performance.

    pdf46p mama15 27-09-2010 124 26   Download


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