Measuring poverty

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  • This paper reviews the relevant literature on the monetary approach that has long and widely been used to identify and measure poverty. According to this approach, a household is considered as poor if their income or expenditure is lower than the value of given poverty lines that are the absolute poverty line, the relative poverty line and the subjective poverty line.

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  • Chapter 20 explores the causes of income inequality, its measurement, and means by which government redistributes income to reduce poverty. The Lorenz Curve (numerically, a Gini ratio) illustrates the degree of income inequality in a country. Income inequality is caused by differences in ability, education and training, discrimination, preferences and willingness to take risks, wealth, market power, luck, connections, and misfortune.

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  • This study aims at exploring interrelations between monetary poverty and other socioeconomic characteristics of rural households in Vietnam relying on livelihood approach and searching relevant socioeconomic indicators for multidimensional poverty measurement.

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  • The United States has seen major advances in medical care over the past decades, but access to care at an affordable cost is not universal. Many Americans lack health care insurance of any kind, and many others with insurance are nonetheless exposed to financial risk because of high premiums, deductibles, co-pays, limits on insurance payments, and uncovered services. One might expect that the U.S. poverty measure would capture these financial effects and trends in them over time.

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  • In November 2009, EIF issued a working paper on the European microfinance market. In this study, we found that there are wide spectra of final beneficiaries and intermediaries and concluded that there is no common microfinance business model in Europe. While our findings suggested that the microfinance market is immature and fragmented, they also pointed to its growing importance as a market segment with a potential to counter poverty and unemployment while fostering financial and social inclusion.

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  • Agriculture is also a significant source of economic growth. In developing countries, agriculture generates on average 29 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 65 percent of the labour force. About two thirds of the world’s agricultural value added is produced in developing countries. At the same time, agriculture also plays an important role in transforming and urbanized economies, where industries and services linked to agriculture account for more than 30 percent of GDP (ibid.).

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  • To gain a better understanding of the possible role of credit in improving house- hold food security and alleviating poverty in Malawi, in November 1994 the Inter- national Food Policy Research Institute and the Department of Rural Development, Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, initiated a research program on rural financial markets and household food security in Malawi. The main objective of the research program was to analyze the determinants of access to credit in Malawi and its impact on farm and nonfarm income and on household food security.

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  • Why is the market share of accounting measures shrinking, and can cross-sectional differences in the extent of shrinkage be explained? Has the information content of accounting information itself deteriorated, or should we look to more fundamental changes in the economic environment? For example, Milliron (2000) documents a significant shift over the past twenty years in board characteristics measuring director accountability, independence, and effectiveness consistent with a general increase in directors’ incentive alignment with shareholders’ interests.

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  • Sector Approaches and Sector Programmes have been labelled over time in different ways: SIPs (Sector Investment Programmes), SDPs (Sector Development Programmes), Sector Expenditure Programmes, and more recently SWAp (Sector Wide Approach). In spite of the varied terminology, there are key principles on which there is agreement in the international donor community. 11 Firstly, it is accepted that they should be led by partner governments. Secondly, they have the common goal of improving the efficiency and effectiveness with which internal and external resources are utilised.

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  • Since President Lyndon Johnson’s declaration of War on Poverty and the passage of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, optimism that had surrounded those measures has faded. The economic, fiscal, and social conditions of the old central cities have declined, while their inner-ghetto areas have become zones of calamity. Their residents are not only living in poverty, but they must also contend with levels of drug use and violence that, although currently in decline, would have seemed inconceivable in the early 1960s.

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  • Missing the Target researchers consistently heard of the need for global actors to coordinate their efforts much more closely in the countries where they work. The Interagency Task Team on Children and HIV and AIDS (IATT) 1 , led by UNICEF and composed of representatives from UNAIDS co-sponsors, donors, NGOs, academic institutions and other organisations, is charged with helping coordinate policy and programming on the country and global level.

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  • Ensure that system and network administrators are trained and capable. Security testing must be performed by capable and trained staff. Often, individuals recruited for this task are already involved in system administration. While system administration is an increasingly complex task, the numbers of trained system administrators generally has not kept pace with the increase in computing systems.

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  • How shall we assess the structural change hypothesis as the basis for inner-city urban poverty? It certainly seems plausible. One has only to walk the former industrial district of any large, older city, from New York to San Francisco, to see its physical manifesta- tions. Yet some nagging problems remain.

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  • In  recent  years,  brackish  water  shrimp  culture  in  Quang  Tri  Province  has  developed  rapidly. Thanks to this development, lives of many local farmers have been improved, contributing  considerably  to  the  poverty  alleviation  goal.  However,  together  with  this  positive  impact,  policy‐ makers  and  shrimp  farmers  are  facing  several  issues  such 

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  • Banks thus planned to meet their shortfalls predominantly through capital measures, and some made progress in spite of unfavourable market conditions. Low share prices, as at present, cause a strong dilution effect, drawing resistance from incumbent shareholders and management. 4 The experience of UniCredit, whose deeply discounted €7.5 billion rights issue led to a 45% (albeit transient) plunge in its share price, deterred other banks from following suit. Capital can also be built through retained earnings, debt-to- equity conversion or redemption below par.

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  • We can see by the responses above that the participants did not aspire to high earnings, possibly because they do not have a sense of how much money is required to earn a living wage, and/or because they have grown up in poverty. The latter two respondents have a sense of the connections between earning and living standards. The gap in knowledge around earning capacity could be one starting place to help young women assess how much they need to earn in order to attain a living wage. The need for economic literacy is starkly apparent from the responses above....

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  • Chapter 20 - Income inequality, poverty, and discrimination. In this chapter, you will learn to: Income inequality in the U.S, sources of income inequality, income inequality since 1970, economic arguments regarding income inequality, poverty measurement and incidence, the U.S. income-maintenance program, labor market discrimination.

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  • achieve universal primary education (Mdg 2). Gender parity in education is still to be achieved. It is essential because educated girls and women improve prospects for the whole family, helping to break the cycle of poverty. In Africa, for example, children whose mothers have been educated for at least five years are 40% more likely to live beyond the age of five. Schools can serve as a point of contact for women and children, allowing health-related information to be shared, services offered and health literacy promoted. ...

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Inequality across countries; poverty, Inequality, and GNP per capita; the growth controversy: seven critical questions; the growth controversy: seven critical questions; measuring inequality and poverty; the greater the curvature of the lorenz line, the greater the relative degree of inequality;...

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  • The analysis of this study is based on the inherited results using the panel data of climate shocks and risks faced by farmers in 12 preventative provinces of the seven ecological regions of Vietnam as surveyed by IPSARD (2013) and the data collected from the in-depth studies with 330 farmer households sampled from six selected provinces that represent five sub-ecological areas of Mekong river Delta.

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