Microwave heating

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  • The term ‘microwaves’ is used for those wavelengths measured in centimetres roughly from 1 m. to 0.1 cm or the bands of frequencies between 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Microwaves are most popularly used in point to point communication, TV broadcasting via satellites and in RADAR systems. Besides these, they are also being used in industrial, biomedical, chemical and in scientific research applications.

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  • Microwave heating has found many applications ranging from the microwave ovens in kitchen to heat food, to a sterilization apparatus for medical treatment, to materials processing in the various fields. In those applications, microwave heating demonstrates significant advantages over conventional methods in reduced processing time and less environmental impacts. This book is comprised of eight chapters within three parts highlighting different aspects covering both the basic understandings and the advanced applications....

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  • The book offers comprehensive coverage of the broad range of scientific knowledge in the fields of advances in induction and microwave heating of mineral and organic materials. Beginning with industry application in many areas of practical application to mineral materials and ending with raw materials of agriculture origin the authors, specialists in different scientific area, present their results in the two sections: Section 1-Induction and Microwave Heating of Mineral Materials, and Section 2-Microwave Heating of Organic Materials....

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  • The magnetic properties of the nanoparticle powders are strongly dependent on the preparation conditions. The milling process produces damages and defects not only on the surface, but also the crystal structure inside the particles, that cause an undesired strong reduction of saturation magnetization (Ms) and an increase of coercivity (Hc). A suitable post-milling heat treatment is able to heal the particles and recover most of their saturation magnetization and magnetic softness. The nanoparticles are then mixed with paraffin for microwave and radar absorption measurements.

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  • Using the ionic liquid as the reaction solvent in conjunction with microwave irradiation, the reaction rate was dramatically enhanced, with 99% conversion being achieved within 2 minutes, while less than 5% conversion was observed after 8 hours for the reaction under conventional heating condition. Furthermore, the ionic liquid could be reused without significant degradation in activity.

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  • Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. From prehistoric storage jars to tiles on the space shuttles, pottery and ceramics have played a key role in innumerable human endeavors. The art of ceramics is one of the oldest known, dating to prehistoric times. Once heated (fired) to between 350⁰ and 800⁰C, the clay is converted to ceramic and will never dissolve again.

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  • In many small and shallow aquifers the hydrochemistry does not evolve further. However, the baseline natural quality of groundwater may vary spatially within the same aquifer if the mineral assemblages vary, and also evolves with time as the water moves along groundwater flow lines. If an aquifer dips below a confining layer (Figure 2.5), a sequence of hydrochemical processes occurs with progressive distance down gradient away from the outcrop, including precipitation of some solids when relevant ion concentrations reach saturation levels for a solid mineral phase.

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  • The synthesis of Fe-MIL-101 material with the presence of H2BDC linker and iron (III) chloride achieving remarkable success is a result of solvothermal method. Catalytic activity works on the Friedel-Crafts benzoylation reaction of aromatic compounds and benzoyl chloride. In addition, Fe-MIL-101 is a heterogeneous catalyst which succeeds in not only shortening duration in a significant amount, but also increasing conversion with the assistance of the microwave irradiation compared with the conventional heating.

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  • Essential oil unsaturated alcohols have been oxidized efficiently into the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes by potassium permanganate supported copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate. Unsaturated aldehydes such as geranial and cinnamaldehyde being valuable components in food, cosmetic, perfumery and pharmaceutical chemistry, have been obtained in good yields (> 60%) under two activation methods: microwave irradiation and conventional heating.

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  • Other Wireless Systems The two major applications of RF and microwave technologies are in communications and radar=sensor systems. Radar and communication systems have been discussed in Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. There are many other applications such as navigation and global positioning systems, automobile and highway applications, direct broadcast systems, remote sensing, RF identi®cation, surveillance systems, industrial sensors, heating, environmental, and medical applications. Some of these systems will be discussed brie¯y in this chapter....

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  • The definition for dielectric constant relates to the permittivity of the material (symbol use here ε). The permittivity expresses the ability of a material to polarise in response to an applied field. It is the ratio of the permittivity of the dielectric to the permittivity of a vacuum. Physically it means the greater the polarisation developed by a material in an applied field of given strength, the greater the dielectric constant will be. Traditionally dielectric materials are made from inorganic substances eg. mica and silicon dioxide.

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  • This book attempts to bring together the theory and practice of dielectric materials for different kind of industrial applications. Fragmented information on dielectric theory and properties of materials, design of equipment and state of the art in applications relevant to the manufacturing industry should be collated and updated and presented as a single reference volume. In this book relevant and useful information is presented in the quoted literature and covered by our key patent applications....

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  • When we thus contemplate the process of social hygiene, we are no longer in danger of looking upon it as an artificial interference with Nature. It is in the Book of Nature, as Campanella put it, that the laws of life and of government are to be read. Or, as Quesnel said two centuries ago, more precisely for our present purpose, "Nature is universal hygiene." All animals are scrupulous in hygiene; the elaboration of hygiene moves pari passu with the rank of a species in intelligence. Even the cockroach, which lives on what we call filth, spends the greater part of its time in the...

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