Modeling complex environments

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  • Agent-based models (ABM) are becoming standard tools to study complex systems especially in ecology and more recently in epidemiology. The developments of models in these domains have highlighted the need for more complex representations of the environment. In this paper, we present an individual-based epidemiological model that has the particularity to make heavy use of geographic data and complex spatial operations.

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  • As a wetland of international importance located in China, the Poyang Lake Basin's incredible topographical and biological diversity has provided a congregating point for scientists from around the world to engage in cross-disciplinary research. In particular, the International Conference on Poyang Lake Complex Environment System was instrumental in bringing together scholars from China, North America, and Europe to explore the latest innovations in water resource science and watershed management.

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  • The use of models to provide additional details on contaminant fate and transport has rapidly increased in the past 3 decades. The increasing global recognition of the potential risks associated with surface water or ground water contamination and speciÞc environmental regulations implemented after 1980 have demanded a more accurate understanding of these risks as they relate to human health and the environment.

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  • Welcome to Learning Quartz Composer! We guarantee this will be the most fun geek book you have read, and by the end your digital world will be a better-looking place. Whether you dream of live visuals, interactive installations, Cocoa apps, dashboard widgets, or extra awesomeness for your film and motion graphics projects, Quartz Composer will enable you to develop beautiful solutions in amazingly short periods of time.

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  • A significant issue of the supply chain problem is how to integrate different entities. Managing supply chain is a difficult task because of complex integrations, especially when the products are perishable in nature. Little attention has been paid on ordering specific perishable products jointly in uncertain environment with multiple sources and multiple destinations.

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  • The movement pattern of users is of significant when evaluating the performance of different kinds of algorithms in wireless networking environments. In this paper, we propose an enhanced random waypoint mobility model (ERWP) to achieve a good trade off between reality and complexity.

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  • In complex indoor environments, due to the attenuation of the signal and the changing surrounding environment, the censoring and multi-component problems may be present in the observed data. Censoring refers to the fact that sensors on portable devices cannot measure Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) values below a specific threshold, such as -100 dBm. The multi-component problem occurs when the measured data varies due to obstacles and user directions, whether the door is closed or open, etc.

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  • This paper proposes a novel hierarchical approach, developed by the Technique for Order preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method in an interval-valued complex neutrosophic set environment, to more accurately and comprehensively understand the evaluation process and fit it into a systematic framework. An application is given to illustrate a practical solution in lecturer’s evaluation. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing with other methods.

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  • Order picking in conventional warehouse environments involves determining a sequence in which to visit the unique locations where each part in the order is stored, and thus is often modeled as a traveling salesman problem. With computer tracking of inventories, parts may now be stored in multiple locations, simplifying replenishment of inventory and eliminating the need to reserve space for each item. In this environment, order picking requires choosing a subset of the locations that store an item to collect the required quantity.

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  • Characterizing the nature of heavy metal release reactions, sorption mechanisms, and movement in the soil is the main topic of this book. Because soils are heterogeneous, heavy metals in soils can be involved in a series of complex chemical and biological interactions including oxidation-reduction, precipitation and dissolution, volatilization, and surface and solution phase complexation. The heterogeneous nature of the different soil constituents adds to the complexity of interactions of heavy metal species with the soil environment....

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  • The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are creating systems, which can mimic human beings. Accurate mathematical models neither always exist nor can they be derived for all complex environments because the domain may not be thoroughly understood. The solution consists of constructing rules that apply when input values lie within certain designer-defined categories....

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  • Visual Basic 2005, together with the .NET Framework, provides a wonderfully powerful development environment. With these tools, developers can build amazingly powerful applications relatively quickly and easily. With this power, however, comes great complexity. Many books are available that discuss the Visual Basic language, and if you need to build a relatively simple application, those are generally sufficient. No books, however, address the complex issues that surround the development of more complicated Visual Basic applications.

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  • Some studies are content with establishing simple correlations, while others involve sophisticated econometric analysis, attempting to ascertain the existence and direction of causality. Yet other studies involve complex systems with feedback loops or large simulation models with scenario analysis. Inevitably, they reach different conclusions even when they analyze the same body of data because of differences in perspectives, levels of aggregation and methods of analysis.

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  • The idea of using markets and pricing computer re- sources is quite old. Pricing policies received consid- erable attention at the dawn of modern multi-user time sharing systems. Papers in the late 1960’s were dedi- cated to automated pricing policies for computer time [18, 19, 20]. As research, this work was short-lived. The complexity of these schemes relative to their benefit, combined with the environment of time-shared systems (mostly cooperative, mostly controlled by a single en- tity) quickly made pricing for shared resource allocation a low priority.

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  • Media skills play an increasingly important role in the gathering and sharing of ideas and information. At the core of media mastery are the same fundamental capacities as are required “offline” in traditional print forms: an ability to produce clear communications and an ability to access, understand, and evaluate complex materials and messages. Media mastery also calls upon some skills unique to the online environment, ranging from being able to conduct digital-based research to exchanging and debating ideas in online discussions to interacting with new text forms.

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  • To address this need, PricewaterhouseCoopers has developed the Hub and Spokes Resource Model ™. The Hub and Spokes Resource Model assumes that certain core internal audit resources and capabilities will remain resident within the company. This “hub” provides internal audit with the leadership, continuity and experience that are unique to your organisation. The “spokes” in the model represent elements of a possible cosourcing relationship.

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  • Malnutrition results from a complex set of factors and not one simple cause. The UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition (page 16) provides a useful framework for the discussion of the causes of malnutrition in Somalia. The volatile political situation and civil unrest have led to a chronic and continuing humanitarian crisis that is at the root of the high prevalence of malnutrition in Somalia. Somalia is also prone to drought and floods.

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  • Chapter 5 - Decision making, learning, creativity, and entrepreneurship. The learning objectives for this chapter include: Understand the nature of managerial decision making, differentiate between programmed and nonprogrammed decisions, and explain why nonprogrammed decision making is a complex, uncertain process; describe the six steps that managers should take to make the best decisions, and explain how cognitive biases can lead managers to make poor decisions;...

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  • Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows....

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  • The paper addresses the problem of predicting soil organic matter content in an agricultural field using information collected by a low-cost network of mobile, wireless and noisy sensors that can take discrete measurements in the environment. In this context, it is proposed that the spatial phenomenon of organic matter in soil to be monitored is modeled using Gaussian processes.

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