Multiple pregnancy

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  • Multiple pregnancy involves more than one embryo (fetus) in any one gestation. Two independent mechanisms may lead to multiple gestation: segmentation of a single fertile ovum (identical, monovular, or monozygotic) or fertilization of separate ova by different spermatozoa (fraternal or dizygotic) multiple pregnancy. In the development of twins (the most frequent higher-order gestation), monozygotism is constant ( 2.3–4/1000 deliveries), whereas dizygotism has certain predispositions. Dizygotic twinning is inherited as a recessive autosomal trait via the female descendants.

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  • As recently as the early 1980s, twin pregnancy and birth was a relatively rare event, and higher-order multiples were of negligible consequence. However, this did not deter clinicians as well as researchers from evaluating the clinical management of multiples. Obviously, the validity of many of these studies was hampered because of small sample size and underpowered statistics. Beginning in the early 1980s, all we knew about the natural history of multiples has been profoundly changed.

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  • Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of attempting pregnancy. Primary infertility denotes those patients who have never conceived. Secondary infertility applies to patients who have conceived previously. Approximately 15% of couples experience infertility, which may result from subfertility or sterility (the innate inability to conceive) in either partner or both. The female is responsible in 40%–50% of cases. The male is responsible in 30% and is contributory in another 20%–30% of couples.

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  • Women’s health is composed of a broad range of both normal physiological events in a woman’s life, and conditions which occur as a result of abnormality of the genital tract and pregnancy. During the last century, the field of women’s health (and ill health) have rapidly changed and evolved as a clinical discipline. This is in part due to the changing roles and expectations of women.

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  • The primitive methods used for unsafe abortion show the desperation of the women. Surveys done in New York City before the legalisation of abortion on request documented the techniques in common use. 30 Of 899 women interviewed, 74 reported having attempted to abort one or more pregnancies; 338 noted that one of their friends, relatives, or acquaintances had done so. Of those reported abortion attempts, 80% tried to do the abortion themselves. Nearly 40% of women used a combination of approaches.

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  • Swiss producers of high-quality consumer products will have to be aware of the risks inherent to selling products through the multiple layers of the traditional retail sector with its small stores and the many wholesalers/distributors between producer and customer: Control over the product is easily lost, and a producer must make sure that the quality (and brand image) of his products are not compromised by inadequate handling, storage, delays in delivery etc.

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  • With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.

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  • Over a century ago, with the work of Alexander Graham Bell, the motivation underlying the first use of the telephone in communication had a health-related origin: a doctor attempted to be in contact with his deaf mother and sister. Early developments in electronic patient records took place over 40 years ago through the pioneering work of Ed Hammond and his interest in community and family medicine. Very soon, the European Union will be celebrating a 20-year history of co-financing eHealth research and development initiatives.

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  • Currently, cryopreservation is the only available strategy for the storage of tissueengineered products. However, tissue-engineered products usually consist of multiple layers of cells and, in most cases, the cells are seeded on scaffold made of biomaterials, which complicates the development of efficient freezing storage protocols (Pancrazio et al., 2007). Furthermore, the scale-up of cryopreservation procedures from the cellular level to a macroscopic tissue scale introduces new problems related to heat and mass transfer phenomena in larger systems (Karlsson and Toner, 1996)....

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  • Because the ART industry is largely unregulated, we have very little data on who uses these technologies. Until 2003, the only national data collected was through the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992, which requires that fertility clinics report the number of pregnancies and live births from ART, which the Act defines narrowly as “fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled in the laboratory” (e.g.

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  • Link Cross-Testbed experimentation. Multiple closed distributed systems that run in parallel can offer unique resources such as access to specific scientific equipment. One can imagine a physics researcher will- ing to provide access to their Beowulf cluster [16] but wishing to consume resources produced by data collec- tors at a CERN [17] on a completely separate network.

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  • Breech is a longitudinal presentation in which the cephalic pole occupies the fundus and the caudal (podalic) pole lies in the lower segment of the uterine cavity or within the birth canal. Overall breech presentation occurs in 3%–4% of singleton pregnancies commencing labor, but has a much higher incidence in multiple gestations (e.g., 25% of first twins and 50% of second twins are breech). The incidence rises further in higher order multiple pregnancies.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về bệnh thú y được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành thú y đề tài: Pregnancy Rates in Repeat-breeder Heifers Following Multiple Artificial Inseminations during Spontaneous Oestrus...

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  • The initial volume of Biennial Review of Infertility was published in 2009. In the preface to that volume we shared our vision that this series would serve as a forum for evidence-based reviews of cutting-edge topics in the field of infertility, written by experts in the field and accessible and applicable to clinicians and researchers alike. We also began a tradition of highlighting and providing contrasting reviews to emerging and controversial topics. We are very pleased with the response we have had to Biennial Reviews of Infertility, Volume 1, and are excited now to present Volume 2...

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  • Women’s health is composed of a broad range of both normal physiological events in a woman’s life, and conditions which occur as a result of abnormality of the genital tract and pregnancy. During the last century, the field of women’s health (and ill health) have rapidly changed and evolved as a clinical discipline. This is in part due to the changing roles and expectations of women.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Diagnostic imaging obstetrics" presents the following contents: Genitourinary tract, musculoskeletal, placenta, membranes and umbilical cord, multiple gestations, aneuploidy, syndromes and multisystem disorders, infection, fluid, growth and well-being, maternal conditions in pregnancy, postpartum complications.

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  • Perinatal mortality refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. The perinatal period is the most vulnerable period in the life of an individual and the rate of death during this period is higher than at any other period of life. Deaths during this short period equal the rate of death over the next forty year period. Social, cultural, environmental and genetic factors all play vital roles in determining the outcome of this period of life.

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  • Improving oral health during pregnancy not only enhances the overall health of women but also contributes to improving the oral health of their children. In the past, some oral health professionals have postponed treatment because of the uncertainty about the risk of x-rays and bacteremia (4;5). However, deferring appropriate treatment may cause unforeseen harm to the woman and possibly to the fetus for several reasons. First, women may self-medicate with over the counter medications like acetaminophen to control pain.

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  • During the last decades, global organizations and women’s rights advocates have called on governments to recognise the multiple determinants of women’s health, and there has been a growing consensus about the need to integrate and widen health services to respond to a broad variety of problems affecting them.

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  • IVF and related treatments (GIFT and ZIFT, see below) are the most invasive ART treatments. Usually women try other methods first, and turn to IVF when those methods have not succeeded in pregnancy or live birth. One percent of babies in the US are born using IVF. Unlike AI, fertilization takes place outside the woman’s body in which eggs (retrieved from the woman trying to get pregnant or from an egg donor) are fertilized with sperm (from a partner or donor) in a Petri dish.

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