Nature structural biology

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  • Human cystatin C (HCC) is a family 2 cystatin inhibitor of papain-like (C1) and legumain-related (C13) cysteine proteases. In pathophysiological processes, the nature of which is not understood, HCC is codeposited in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer’s disease or Down’s syndrome.

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  • The 3D structure of methanogen chromosomal protein 1 (MC1), deter-mined with heteronuclear NMR methods, agrees with its function in terms of the shape and nature of the binding surface, whereas the 3D structure determined with homonuclear NMR does not.

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  • We show a simple and reliable method of tRNA aminoacylation with natural, as well as non-natural, amino acids at high pressure. Such specific and noncognate tRNAs can be used as valuable substrates for protein engineering. Aminoacylation yield at high pressure depends on the chem-ical nature of the amino acid used and it is up to 10%.

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  • Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

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  • Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.

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  • The biochemical nature and the replication of infectious prions have been intensively studied in recent years. Much less is known about the cellular events underlying neuronal dysfunction and cell death. As the cellular func-tion of the normal cellular isoform of prion protein is not exactly known, the impact of gain of toxic function or loss of function, or a combination of both, in prion pathology is still controversial.

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  • Photosystem II (PSII), an essential component of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a membrane-bound pigment protein complex found in green plants and cyanobacteria. Whereas the molecular structure of cyanobacterial PSII has been resolved with at least medium resolution [Zouni, A., Witt, H.-T., Kern, J., Fromme, P., Krauss, N., Saenger, W. & Orth, P. (2001)Nature (London)409, 739–743; Kamiya, N. &Shen, J.R. (2003)Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA100, 98–103], the structure of higher plant PSII is only known at low resolution. ...

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  • This book is the first in a new series devoted to synthetic works in the fields of ecology and evolution. These fields synthesis. Recent examples of synthetic activities include the establishment of the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California Santa Barbara and Deep Green, a worldwide collaboration among angiosperm systematists to determine the phylogenetic structure of the flowering plants. In ecology some of the most important research challenges concern global climate change and the loss of diversity.

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  • Chromatin is by its very nature a repressive environment which restricts the recruitment of transcription factors and acts as a barrier to polymerases. Therefore the complex process of gene activation must operate at two levels. In the first instance, localized chromatin decondensation and nucleosome displacement is required to make DNA accessible.

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  • The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure–activity relation-ships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH2), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH2) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFV CVG-NH2). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. ...

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  • Nonribosomal peptide synthetases serve as multidomain protein templates for producing a wealth of pharmaceutically important natural products. For the correct assembly of the desired natural product the interactions between the different catalytic centres and the reaction intermediates bound to the peptidyl carrier protein must be precisely controlled at spatial and temporal levels.

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  • We analysed the structural properties of protein regions containing arrays of perfect and nearly perfect tandem repeats. Naturally occurring proteins with perfect repeats are practically absent among the proteins with known 3D structures. The great majority of such regions in the Protein Data Bank are found in the proteins designed de novo.

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  • The activity of theCaenorhabditis elegansscavenger decapping enzyme (DcpS) on its natural substrates and dinucleotide cap analogs, modified with regard to the nucleoside base or ribose moiety, has been examined. All tested dinucleotides were specifically cleaved between b- and c-phosphate groups in the triphosphate chain.

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  • The 3D structure of a complex formed by the acidic fibroblast growth fac-tor (FGF-1) and a specifically designed synthetic heparin hexasaccharide has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. This hexasaccharide can sub-stitute natural heparins in FGF-1 mitogenesis assays, in spite of not indu-cing any apparent dimerization of the growth factor.

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  • Kernel based methods dominate the current trend for various relation extraction tasks including protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction. PPI information is critical in understanding biological processes. Despite considerable efforts, previously reported PPI extraction results show that none of the approaches already known in the literature is consistently better than other approaches when evaluated on different benchmark PPI corpora.

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  • In this review, we summarize recent progress in studying three main classes of prenyltransferases: (a) isoprenyl pyrophosphate synthases (IPPSs), which catalyze chain elongation of allylic pyrophosphate substrates via consecutive condensation reactions with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to generate linear polymers with defined chain lengths; (b) protein prenyltransferases, which catalyze the transfer of an isoprenyl pyrophosphate (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) to a protein or a peptide; (c) prenyltransferases, which catalyze the cyclization of isoprenyl pyrophosphates.

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  • Chapter 2 - The molecular nature of genes. Before we begin to study in detail the structure and activities of genes, and the experimental evidence underlying those concepts, we need a fuller outline of the adventure that lies before us. Thus, in this chapter and in chapter 3, we will fl esh out the brief history of molecular biology presented in chapter 1. In this chapter we will begin this task by considering the behavior of genes as molecules.

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  • VOl. 1 CALPHAD by N. Saunders and A. P. Miodownik VOl. 2 Non-Equilibrium Processing of Materials edited by C. Suryanarayana VOl. 3 Wettability at High Temperatures by N. Eustathopoulos, M. G . Nicholas and B. Drevet VOl. 4 Structural Biological Materials edited by M. Elices VOl. 5 The Coming of Materials Science by R. W. Cahn Vol. 6 Multinuclear Solid State NMR of Inorganic Materials by K. J. D. Mackenzie and M. E. Smith Vol. 7 Underneath the Bragg Peaks: Structural Analysis of Complex Materials by T. Egami and S . L. J. Billinge Vol. 8 Thermally Activated Mechanisms in...

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  • Pladienolide is a naturally occurring macrolide that binds to the SF3b com-plex to inhibit mRNA splicing. It has not been fully validated whether the splicing impairment is a relevant mechanism for the potent antitumor activ-ity of pladienolide.

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  • One of the most important pathological features of type 2 diabetes is the formation of islet amyloid, of which the major component is amylin pep-tide. However, the presence of a natural inhibitor such as insulin may keep amylin stable and physiologically functional in healthy individuals. Some previous studies demonstrated that insulin was a potent inhibitor of amylin fibril formationin vitro, but others obtained contradictory results.

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