Neuronal actions

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  • The abuse of amphetamines is of national concern from a public health perspective. Review of this subject is timely and important, because the problem of amphetamine-like drugs has recently been amplified by the introduction of designer drugs in the illicit market. There has been an increasing number of attempts by chemists in clandestine laboratories to synthesize structurally altered congeners that might intensify the moodaltering property of this class of compounds.

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  • The health professional should use this booklet as a tool in diagnosing an individual’s signs and symptoms that could be related to an indoor air pollution problem. The document is organized according to pollutant or pollutant group. Key signs and symptoms from exposure to the pollutant(s) are listed, with diagnostic leads to help determine the cause of the health problem. A quick reference summary of this information is included in this booklet (pg. 3). Remedial action is suggested, with comment providing more detailed information in each section.

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  • Mercury is thought to be one of the first metals used by humans. Historical records provide evidence of mercury use by ancient Chinese and Hindu civilizations. Archaeologists have also found traces of mercury in an Egyptian tomb dating from 1500 BC and in the writing of a Chinese alchemist around 4500 BC. Both the Egyptians and Chinese may have been using the mercury ore, cinnabar, as a pigment to paint their tombs, anoint their statues and even preserve their dead. Many civilizations believed mercury had mystical properties and the power to prolong life.

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  • WBTi is a monitoring and evaluation tool initiated in Asia which uses the methodology and philosophy of Global Participatory Action Research (GLOPAR)1993 developed by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) to track targets set by the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. WBTi has also adopted the WHO (2003) monitoring and evaluation tool on Infant and Young Child Feeding for assessing national practices, policies and programmes.

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  • Expectations of Fed policy actions are not directly observable, of course, but Fed funds futures prices are a natural, market-based proxy for those expectations. The market was established in 1989 at the Chicago Board of Trade, and contracts based on one- through five-month Fed funds are currently traded, along with a “spot month” contract based on the current month’s funds rate.

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  • Introduction: Phenothiazine drugs, including chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, have been being widely used as neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), antiparkinsonian drugs and antihistaminics for a long time [1]. Table 1.1 shows chemical structures of representative phenothiazines. These drugs show blocking action on D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurons; there is close relationship between the receptor blocking and tranquilizing actions. The dopamine D2 receptor-blocking actions provoke extrapyramidal symptoms, such as muscular stiffness, tremor and ptyalism.

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  • Neural Control The small intestine and colon have intrinsic and extrinsic innervation. The intrinsic innervation, also called the enteric nervous system, comprises myenteric, submucosal, and mucosal neuronal layers. The function of these layers is modulated by interneurons through the actions of neurotransmitter amines or peptides, including acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), opioids, norepinephrine, serotonin, ATP, and nitric oxide. The myenteric plexus regulates smooth-muscle function, and the submucosal plexus affects secretion, absorption, and mucosal blood flow.

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  • Evoked Responses Electrocochleography measures the earliest evoked potentials generated in the cochlea and the auditory nerve. Receptor potentials recorded include the cochlear microphonic, generated by the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti, and the summating potential, generated by the inner hair cells in response to sound. The whole nerve action potential representing the composite firing of the firstorder neurons can also be recorded during electrocochleography.

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  • The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor subunit 1 (TRPV1) is amolecular integrator of physical and chemical stimuli in the peripheral nociceptor terminals. TRPV1 is an ionotropic channel that plays a critical role in both thermal nociception and inflammatoryhyperalgesia. Structure–function relationships are providing fundamental insights of the modular architecture of this neuronal recep-tor.

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  • A large number of bioactive peptides have been isolated from amphibian skin secretions. These peptides have a variety of actions including antibiotic and anticancer acti-vities and the inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. We have investigated the structure–activity relationship of citropin 1.1, a broad-spectrum antibiotic and anticancer agent that also causes inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, by making a number of synthetically modified analogues.

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  • Chapter 11 - Fundamentals of the nervous system and nervous tissue (part b). In this chapter, you will learn: Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis, compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials, explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons,...

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