Optimal substrate

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  • Application of polymers from renewable resources - also identified as biopolymers - has a large potential market due to the current emphasis on sustainable technology. For optimal R&D achievements and hence benefits from these market opportunities, it is essential to combine the expertise available in the vast range of different disciplines in biopolymer science and technology.

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  • This chapter discusses the problematic nature of interfacial sciences when constrained to the mesoscale. Interfacial sciences are trapped between the atomistic and the three- dimensional bulk regimes - the mesoscale. We experience a breakdown of phenomenological descriptions used to characterize macrosystems. Furthermore, submicrometer systems with their fractal-like dimension cannot be adequately described with quantum or molecular interaction theories. The challenge of describing the mesoscale for the...

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  • The structures of copper amine oxidases from various sources show good similarity, suggesting similar catalytic mechanisms for all members of this enzyme family. However, the optimal substrates for each member differ, depending on the source of the enzyme and its location.

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  • Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A3 (EphA3, EC is a member of a unique branch of the kinome in which downstream signaling occurs in both ligand- and receptor-expressing cells. Consequently, the ephrins and ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases often mediate processes involving cell–cell con-tact, including cellular adhesion or repulsion, developmental remodeling and neuronal mapping.

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  • A representative model of mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism was broken down into its extremal independent currents and compared with experimen-tal data obtained from liver mitochondria incubated with pyruvate as a substrate but in the absence of added adenosine diphosphate.

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  • d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) has recently become of interest as a biocat-alyst for industrial applications and for therapeutic treatments. It has been used in gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies, in which its production of H2O2 in tumor cells can be regulated by administration of substrate. This approach is limited by the locally low O2 concentration and the high Km for this substrate.

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  • Acomputational approach is used to analyse temporal gene expression in the context of metabolic regulation. It is based on the assumption that cells developed optimal adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Time-dependent enzyme profiles are calculatedwhichoptimize the function of a metabolic pathway under the constraint of limited total enzymeamount.For linearmodel pathways it is shown thatwave-like enzyme profiles are optimal for a rapid substrate turnover.

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  • Only 2% of the known natural products with acetylenic bonds area-alkynoates. Their polarized, conjugated triple bond is an optimal target for an enzymic hydration. Therefore they are good substrates for the enzymes involved in metabolism of acetylenic compounds, resulting in products that are suitable for bacterial growth. We isolated a Pseudomonas putida strain growing on 2-butynedioate as well as on propynoate, and determined the metabolic pathways of these two a-alkynoates.

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  • The HeLa cell terminal uridylyltransferase (TUTase) that specifically modifies the 3¢-end of mammalian U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) was characterized with respect to ionic dependence and substrate requirements. Optimal enzyme activity was obtained at moderate ionic strength (60 mMKCl) anddependedon thepresenceof 5 mMMgCl2. In vitrosynthesizedU6 snRNA without a 3¢-terminal UMP residue was not accepted as substrate.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidized some alkylarenes such as ethylbenzene (1), propylbenzene (2), diphenylmethane (3), cumene (4), 1-bromo-2-phenylethane (5), indane (6), tetraline (7), and fluorene (8) at the benzylic position to form the corresponding aromatic ketones under solventless reaction conditions. Under the assisstance of ultrasound and microwave irradiation, the reaction times were reduced remarkably without a decrease of the yield.

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