Ordinary structures

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  • This work develops and defends a structural view of the nature of mathematics, which is used to explain a number of striking features of mathematics that have puzzled philosophers for centuries. It rejects the most widely held philosophical view of mathematics (Platonism), according to which mathematics is a science dealing with mathematical objects such as sets and numbers—objects which are believed not to exist in the physical world.

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  • The notion of a Horn extended feature structure (HoXF) is introduced, which is a feature structure constrained so that its only allowable extensions are those satisfying some set of llorn clauses in featureterm logic, l l o X F ' s greatly generalize ordinary feature structures in admitting explicit representation of negative and implicational constraints. In contradistinction to the general case in which arbitrary logical constraints are allowed (for which the best known algorithms are exponential), there is a highly tractable algorithm for the unification of HoXF's. ...

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  • Idiomatic expressions have long played an important role in the English language. In fact, the use of idioms is so widespread that an understanding of these expressions is essential to successful communication, whether in listening, speaking, reading, or writing. The student may learn grammar and, with time, acquire adequate vocabulary, but without a working knowledge of such idioms as above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., even the best student's speech will remain awkward and ordinary.

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  • This document shall cover traditional lightning protection system installation requirements for the following:This document shall not cover lightning protection system installation requirements for early streamer emission systems or charge dissipation systems. The purpose of this standard is to provide for the practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from exposure to lightning.

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  • Among halogens, fluorine is quite characteristic and specific since it has the largest electronegativity (4.0 vs 3.5 for oxygen) and the sterically second smallest van der Waals' radius (1.35 ~ vs. 1.20/~ for hydrogen). A carbon-fluorine bond is also stronger than a carbon-hydrogen bond (485 kJ/mol vs 414 kJ/mol). Therefore, fluoro organic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties.

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  • A computational model for the ATP–ADP steady-state exchange rate med-iated by adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) versus mitochondrial mem-brane potential dependence in isolated rat liver mitochondria is presented. The model represents the system of three ordinary differential equations, and the basic components included are ANT, F0 ⁄F1 -ATPase, and the phos-phate carrier.

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  • The subject-verb order is fixed, and we can change it only if there is a special reason. A verb phrase can have a complex structure. There can be auxiliary verbs as well as the ordinary verb. The use of tenses and auxiliary verbs can be difficult for speakers of other languages.

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  • A verb phrase can have a complex structure. There can be auxiliary verbs as well as the ordinary verb. The subject-verb order is fixed, and we can change it only if there is a special reason. The use of tenses and auxiliary verbs can be difficult for speakers of other languages.

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  • At a prime of ordinary reduction, the Iwasawa “main conjecture” for elliptic curves relates a Selmer group to a p-adic L-function. In the supersingular case, the statement of the main conjecture is more complicated as neither the Selmer group nor the p-adic L-function is well-behaved. Recently Kobayashi discovered an equivalent formulation of the main conjecture at supersingular primes that is similar in structure to the ordinary case. Namely, Kobayashi’s conjecture relates modified Selmer groups, which he defined, with modified padic L-functions defined by the first author.

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  • To take our users’ Semantic Web experience further, we have created Semantic Bank, a com- munal repository of RDF to which a community of Piggy Bank users can contribute to share the information they have collected. Through Semantic Bank, we introduce a mechanism for light- weight structured information publishing and envision collaborative scenarios made possible by this mechanism.

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  • In this way, learners are encouraged to notice the gap between what they are producing and what the target language requires- Another example of teaching with an implicit focus on grammar is when teachers choose to "enhance the input*1 of their students by exposing them to language samples in which particular grammatical structures are highlighted or are more prevalent than they might be in ordinary communication.

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  • The 2007 global financial crisis ignited by reckless bankers and their flawed reward structures will be felt for years to come. Emerging from the wreckage, however, is renewed support for the over-arching objective of traditional finance theory, namely the long-run maximisation of shareholder wealth using the current market value of ordinary shares (common stock) as a benchmark.

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  • This paper discusses the consequences of allowing discontinuous constituents in syntactic representions and phrase-structure rules, and the resulting complications for a standard parser of phrase-structure grammar. It is argued, first, that discontinuous constituents seem inevitable in a phrase-structure grammar which is acceptable from a semantic point of view. It is shown that tree-like constituent structures with discontinuities can be given a precise definition which makes them just as acceptable for syntactic representation as ordinary trees.

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  • This paper deals with a formula of stability radii for an linear difference equation (LDEs for short) with the coefficients varying in time under structured parameter perturbations. It is shown that the lp− real and complex stability radii of these systems coincide and they are given by a formula of input-output operator. The result is considered as an discrete version of a previous result for time-varying ordinary differential equations [1]. Keywords: Robust stability, Linear difference equation, Input-output operator, Stability radius ...

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  • In an ordinary syntactic parser, the input is a string, and the grammar ranges over strings. This paper explores generalizations of ordinary parsing algorithms that allow the input to consist of string tuples and/or the grammar to range over string tuples. Such algorithms can infer the synchronous structures hidden in parallel texts. It turns out that these generalized parsers can do most of the work required to train and apply a syntax-aware statistical machine translation system.

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  • We present an implemented unification-based parser for relational grammars developed within the s t r a t i f i e d f e a t u r e g r a m m a r (SFG) framework, which generalizes Kasper-Rounds logic to handle relational grammar analyses. We first introduce the key aspects of SFG and a lexicalized, graph-based variant of the framework suitable for implementing relational grammars. We then describe a head-driven chart parser for lexicalized SFG.

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  • Chapter 3: Generating Functions introduces a central concept in the average-case analysis of algorithms: generating functions - a necessary and natural link between the algorithms that are our objects of study and analytic methods that are necessary to discover their properties.

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