Originator brand medicines

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  • Before embarking on policy reforms to improve access, national policy-makers need to have a clear understanding of the factors that are contributing to high prices and poor avail- ability; this will help ensure that their response is tailored to the national context. Table 1.3 lists a number of possible policy options and specific actions that are open to governments for reducing prices and improving availability.

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  • Traditional Asian medicine has been in existence for more than 5000 years. It relies on using animal and plant substances, which form the basis of raw ingredients for prescription medicine and manufactured patent medicines. The raw ingredients may be used directly after some preparation (grinding, washing, boiling, drying etc.) or may be made into factory-processed forms such as plasters, pills or tablets and packaged in mass quantities for national or worldwide distribution.

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  • Availability and affordability of anticancer medicines is a matter of great concern especially for low and middle income countries e.g., Pakistan. Prime focus of this study was to evaluate the availability of anticancer medicines in public and private sectors, and their affordability among patients with different income levels.

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  • There is an obvious interest in this analysis for feminists, a beauty in its exact rendering of the frustration experienced under the phallocentric order. It gets us nearer to the roots of our oppression, it brings an articulation of the problem closer, it faces us with the ultimate challenge: how to fight the unconscious structured like a language (formed critically at the moment of arrival of language) while still caught within the language of the patriarchy. There is no way in which we can produce an alternative out of the blue, but we can begin to make a break...

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  • Accessibility is a key ingredient of well-being and prosperity in contemporary societies. The ability of individuals, families, entrepreneurs and firms to exchange goods and services, to be where activities are being carried out, and to interact with people on a regular basis is crucial not only to economic life but also to the quality of life. With the growth of economic and social networks over the course of the past two centuries, and t he spatial dispersion of activities, transportation has become a vital part of the systems providing access to those activities.

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  • Among those above age 70, the average number of diseases that each person reports has increased in recent years (17). This increase is because people have survived a number of diseases that once would have been fatal, and they have lived to acquire additional conditions, both potentially fatal and nonfatal, such as arthritis. Thus, older people have more diseases, but less disability, than in the past.

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  • Financial institutions are increasingly measuring and managing the risk from credit exposures at the portfolio level, in addition to the transaction level. This change in perspective has occurred for a number of reasons. First is the recognition that the traditional binary classification of credits into “good” credits and “bad” credits is not sufficient— a precondition for managing credit risk at the portfolio level is the recognition that all credits can potentially become “bad” over time given a particular economic scenario.

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  • On the afternoon and evenings of September 21 – 22, 2012, Gravis Marketing, a non-partisan research firm, and Capitol Correspondent conducted a survey of 765 likely voters in Colorado regarding their likely vote for a given presidential candidate. The poll carries a margin of error of 3.4%. Overall, among likely voters, Obama holds a 4.7% lead at 50.2% compared to Obama’s 45.5%, with 4.3% of likely voters still undecided. The group of undecided voters is likely larger than 4.3%, given that another 2.8% indicated only a “somewhat” preference towards a given candidate.

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  • The cache diffusion algorithm then works as follows. Every time the root basestation receives a tuple that does not join, it sends the maximal ERD which that tuple inter- sects one hop in the direction that the tuple came from. This node then checks its local value cache for tuples that are contained within this ERD. If one is found, this value and any other values that overlap with the ERD are re- moved from the local value cache, and the ERD is added to the ERD cache table with priority 1. If no match is found, then the ERD...

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  • Job creation is only one measure of economic vitality, but it is crucial for several reasons. Jobs provide a living for people, and when there are not enough of them, as in recent years, the society and economy take multiple hits. The unemployed suffer. Demand for social-welfare payments goes up, putting an added strain on public budgets, while demand for goods and services in the marketplace goes down, putting a damper on growth. Conversely, when jobs are being created at a strong rate, these dynamics are reversed and we get an upward spiral. ...

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  • Through efforts by the Ministry of Commerce, together with the cooperation of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and several other development partners under the framework of the Diagnostic Trade Integration Strategy in 2007, 19 commodities and services subsectors with high export potential and strong contribution to human development were identified. The list was submitted to the Government of Cambodia for action. The rubber industry ranked among the top five sectors with high export potential and medium-high contribution to human development.

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  • Dalton et al. reported the average production costs and returns for 2004 from a sample of 30 organic dairy farms in Vermont and Maine. They reported a total cost for organic milk production of $22.58 per cwt, before a deduction for unpaid operator labor and management, which was not significantly different from milk revenues. Thus organic milk production did not generate any return to unpaid labor and management nor did it produce a positive return to farm assets or equity.

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  • Abnormal reproductive development in males has been linked to environmen- tal contaminant exposure in a wide variety of vertebrates. These include humans, rodent models, and a large number of comparative wildlife species. In human males, abnormal reproductive development can manifest as a suite of symptoms, described collectively as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS is also described as demasculinization or feminization of the male phenotype.

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  • Before discussing our methodology, we motivate our study with a table illustrating bank adaptation and soft credit at work. The data are from a large Greek bank, covering tens of thousands applications by individuals for credit products. 4 Columns 1 and 2 show the monthly declared income and monthly payments on household credit products for self-employed individuals across di§erent industries, and column 3 presents the ratio of payments-to-income. On average, self-employed Greeks spend 82% of their monthly reported income servicing debt.

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  • This can be a career change, personal change, such as gaining or losing weight, quitting smoking or changing a relationship dynamic, along with a myriad of other situations. As a result of my work in the school as a part time counselor, I was able to secure contracts at other schools for part-time work. I developed numerous PowerPoint presentations on a range of issues such as anti-bullying programs, substance abuse prevention programs, and peer counseling programs and now offer these workshops to other schools, as well as consult on a variety of mental health issues.

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  • In addition to SME policies, many countries have adopted small business legislative acts, including such countries with economies in transition as Russia, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Within the national framework, acts may specifically target the local level, as in the case of the German Länder. Their content varies but usually includes a declaration of support for small businesses, a definition for public policy purposes and principles on which support for the sector will be based.

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  • In 2004, we realized that the Web was on the cusp of a new era, one that would finally let loose the power of network effects, setting off a surge of innovation and opportunity. To help usher in this new era, O’Reilly Media and CMP launched a conference that showcased the innovators who were driving it. When O’Reilly’s Dale Dougherty came up with the term “Web 2.0” during a brainstorming session, we knew we had the name for the conference. What we didn’t know was that the industry would embrace the Web 2.0 meme and that it would come to represent the new Web. Web 2.0 is much...

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  • Seeking Innovative Ways to Eliminate the Pay Gap. The Department of Labor, in conjunction with the National Equal Pay Task Force, issued an “Equal Pay App Challenge.” This challenge invites software developers to use publicly available data and resources to create applications that accomplish at least one of the following goals: provide greater access to pay data broken down by gender, race, and ethnicity; provide interactive tools for early career coaching; help inform negotiations; and promote online mentoring.

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  • With such possibilities on the horizon, it was clear that the modelling framework used by this Review had to be built around the economics of risk. Averaging across possibilities conceals risks. The risks of outcomes much worse than expected are very real and they could be catastrophic. Policy on climate change is in large measure about reducing these risks. They cannot be fully eliminated, but they can be substantially reduced. Such a modelling framework has to take into account ethical judgements on the distribution of income and on how to treat future generations. ...

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  • Physical Characteristics of Riding Camels: Slender animals with a long and level shoulder, head small with a fine muzzle, moderate lips, ears small and set close together, eyes alert, lower jaw deep below the eye; the neck is fine and supple and joined low down to the trunk; a smallish hump; the shoulder long and fine, the chest very deep, abdomen tucked in, ribs well sprung and terminating not far from the pelvic bone; the fore legs set close together, straight, no brushing at the knees, feet not turned out, the hind legs straight, with no cow hocks; the quarters...

    pdf86p conduongdinhmenh 07-05-2013 37 3   Download



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