Pharmacologic means

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  • Drugs Acting on the Sympathetic Nervous System of the sympathetic division can be considered a means by which the body achieves a state of maximal work capacity as required in fight or flight situations. In both cases, there is a need for vigorous activity of skeletal musculature. To ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, blood flow in skeletal muscle is increased; cardiac rate and contractility are enhanced, resulting in a larger blood volume being pumped into the circulation. Narrowing of splanchnic blood vessels diverts blood into vascular beds in muscle.

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  • Quantification of Drug Action the dose at which one-half of the group has responded. The dose range encompassing the dose-frequency relationship reflects the variation in individual sensitivity to the drug. Although similar in shape, a dose-frequency relationship has, thus, a different meaning than does a dose-effect relationship. The latter can be evaluated in one individual and results from an intraindividual dependency of the effect on drug concentration.

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  • Hormones release of STH (and also other peptide hormones including insulin, glucagon, and gastrin). PRH: prolactin-RH remains to be characterized or established. Both TRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated. PRIH inhibits the release of prolactin and could be identical with dopamine. Hypothalamic releasing hormones are mostly administered (parenterally) for diagnostic reasons to test AH function. Therapeutic control of AH cells. GnRH is used in hypothalamic infertility in women to stimulate FSH and LH secretion and to induce ovulation.

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  • Nomenclature: The terms active agent and pharmacon designate substances that are capable of modifying life processes irrespective of whether the effects elicited may benefit or harm the organisms concerned. By this definition, a toxin is also a pharmacon. Taken in a narrower sense, a pharmacon means a substance that is used for therapeutic purposes. An unequivocal term for such a substance is medicinal drug.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "A handbook of applied statistics in pharmacology" presents the following contents: Probability, distribution; mean, mode, median; variance, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation; analysis of normality and homogeneity of variance; transformation of data and outliers; tests for significant differences,...

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  • Spinal disorders are among the most common medical conditions, having a significant impact on health-related quality of life, use of health care resources and socioeconomic costs. As a therapeutic measure, spinal surgery is still one of the most rapidly growing areas in clinical medicine, and is a major contributor to the continuously increasing costs of modern-day medicine. Similarly, the increasingly aging population will have a greater need for the treatment of degenerative spinal disorders, particularly secondary spinal deformities and stenosis.

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  • When studying the human body it is important to place the body in anatomical position. Anatomical position is described as the body facing you, feet placed together and flat on the floor. The head is held erect, arms straight by the side with palms facing forward. All references to the body are made as if the body is in this position so when you describe something as being above something else it is always with respect to the body being in anatomical position. The relative position of the parts of the human body has specific terms. Superior means above while...

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  • From ‘Abortion rate’ to ‘Zygosity determination’, this accessible introduction to the terminology of medical statistics describes more than 1500 terms, all clearly explained, illustrated and defined in non-technical language, without any mathematical formulae!With the majority of terms revised and updated and the addition of more than 100 brand new definitions, this new edition will enable medical students to quickly grasp the meaning of any of the statistical terms they encounter when reading the medical literature....

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  • We present two volumes of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology devoted to work on DNA methylation. Although the 25 contributions appearing herein are by no means the proceedings of the Weissenburg Symposium on DNA Methylation held in May 2004, many of the authors of the current volumes and of the speakers at the symposium are the same; additional authors were invited later. The authors have been asked not to write a summary of their talks at the symposium but rather to outline their latest and most exciting discoveries and thoughts on the topic.

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  • Most of the terms used in anatomy and physiology are of either Greek or Latin origin. (In fact, the term anatomy is derived from a Greek word that means to “cut open.”) These terms are descriptive, and while they may appear to be rather difficult in the beginning, they soon will be second nature to you. You’ll find yourself speaking the language of anatomy and physiology in no time.

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  • NTC’s Pocket Dictionary of Words and Phrases is for persons who are seeking to improve their ability to speak, read, write, and understand American English. It is a small, portable dictionary that will help learners with spelling, pronunciation, parts of speech, meaning, irregular forms, and the appropriate use of 12,000 common words and phrases. This dictionary defines words using the smallest possible vocabulary, but when it is necessary, additional words are used to define difficult concepts.

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  • “Laparoscopy“ is derived from two Greek words meaning “flank” and “insight.” Laparoscopy is the established term although „celioscopy“, meaning intraabdominal insight, would have been more accurate. Today “laparoscopy” describes a procedure during which contents of the intraperitoneal cavity or of the extraperitoneal space are examined and manipulated in a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention.

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  • We are often asked by medical students and residents for a recommendation of a pocket-sized pediatric neurosurgery text. We are delighted to be offered the opportunity to help construct such a volume. The goal of our work on this project is to provide a means, through the contributions of our many collaborating authors, to become comfortable with the common problems of pediatric neurosurgery in a single accessible book

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  • STROKE IS THE THIRD MOST COMMON CAUSE of death and disability in the US. It is a complex disease, with many causes, many presentations, and many levels of severity. Despite recent medical advances, stroke remains a diffi cult disease to diagnose and treat. In recognition of the importance of this common disorder, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) instituted a new subspecialty examination in 2005.

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  • When I started examining patients with ultrasound for musculoskeletal disorders we were still using static “B” scanners. CT was a new invention and MRI did not exist. Whilst my contemporaries were enthusiastically specialising in the use of nuclear medicine and ultrasound, I chose to take an interest and eventually a full-time specialisation in a system rather than a machine. The principal strength of this choice is that I use all imaging methods and hopefully have insight into their advantages and weaknesses in each potential application.

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  • Welcome to Nurses! Test Yourself in Anatomy and Physiology. We hope you will fi nd this an invaluable tool throughout your anatomy and physiology courses and beyond! This book is designed to be used as a revision aid that you can use with your main textbook. Each chapter is designed for stand-alone revision, meaning that you need not read from the beginning to benefi t from the book

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  • Tham khảo sách 'handbook of veterinary procedures and emergency treatment_1', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • However, once initiated, swallowing is completed normally. Odynophagia means painful swallowing. Frequently, odynophagia and dysphagia occur together. Globus pharyngeus is the sensation of a lump lodged in the throat. However, no difficulty is encountered when swallowing is performed.Misdirection of food, resulting in nasal regurgitation and laryngeal and pulmonary aspiration during swallowing, is characteristic of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

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  • A finite life span is a distinct characteristic of red cells. Hence, a logical, time-honored classification of anemias comprises three groups: decreased production of red cells, increased destruction of red cells, and acute blood loss. Red cell destruction and acute loss, both associated with increased reticulocyte production, are covered in this chapter. Red cell production defects are discussed in Chaps. 98, 99, and 100.

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  • I can safely state that no one truly comprehends the physiology and pathophysiology of the microvasculature. In a large measure, this less than desirable state is the result of an explosion of new scientific data that creates paradoxically [or maybe poetically] a concomitant explosion of ignorance. But challenges enhance curiosity. Regardless how far scientists’ understanding may be from the natural laws that regulate microvessel functions, we share an incumbency to accumulate and disseminate, by whatever means, current new concepts based upon the latest tested investigations. ...

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