Plastic wastes

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  • The objective of this document is to provide guidance for selecting the most appropriate for option safely managing solid waste generated at Primary Health-Care centres (PHCs) in developing countries. The main tool of this guide consists of six decision-trees aimed at assisting the user in identifying appropriate waste management methods. The guide takes into consideration the most relevant local conditions, the safety of workers and of the general public as well as of environmental criteria....

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  • To research the volume and components of solid waste, we surveyed household waste with three different incomes (high, middle and low incomes). Then waste is separated into 34 waste components and 9 main waste groups containing organic waste (easily decomposed waste such as vegetable, root, fruit, left food.. to make the compost and difficultly decomposed waste), paper, plastic, metal, glass, rubber and leather, cloth, dangerous substance, and other waste. Besides, definition of all groups of waste is also discussed. ...

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  • The study conducted by Hiller et al. (2011) to investigate the concentrations, distributions, and hazards of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCBs are used mainly as coolant and electronic industries (capacitors, transformers), paints, sealants for wood, cutting and lubricating fluids, plasticizers, and as dielectric fluids. Therefore, at the former site of PCB manufacturing area in Slovakia, high concentrations of PCBs are detected in soils, sediments, humans, and wildlife (Kocan et al., 2001; Petrik et al., 2001; Hiller et al., 2011)....

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  • The debate on climate change has shifted dramatically in recent years. There is now unequivocal scientifi c evidence – summarised in the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – that global warming is happening; that human actions are responsible; and that this poses an enormous threat to life on Earth. Politicians, businesses and the public are increasingly aware of the problem and are calling for urgent action to cut the man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that cause climate change, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2)....

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  • Containers for collecting live hosts may include any type of cage that prevents escape, including plastic vials with pinholes in the lids or with cotton plugs for air circulation and prevention of condensation. The addition of a drying agent, such as silica gel, to the container used for temporary storage will slow or prevent germination of entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and help eliminate the growth of saprobic fungi on specimens (Figure 1.3). Aquatic invertebrates and specimens containing nematodes and certain protistan parasites should not be allowed to dry.

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  • Metal-forming processes use a remarkable property of metals—their ability to flow plastically in the solid state without concurrent deterioration of properties. Moreover, by simply moving the metal to the desired shape, there is little or no waste.

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  • Verlinden et al. AMB Express 2011, 1:11 ORIGINAL Open Access Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator Rob AJ Verlinden1, David J Hill1, Melvin A Kenward1, Craig D Williams1, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget2 and Iza K Radecka1* Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics.

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  • Not only the aesthetically distasteful plastic litter, but also less conspicuous small plastic pellets and granules are a threat to marine biota. The latter are found in large quantities on beaches (Gregory, 1978, 1989; Shi- ber, 1979, 1982, 1987; Redford et al., 1997), and are the raw material for the manufacture of plastic products that end up in the marine environment through acci- dental spillage during transport and handling, not as litter or waste as other forms of plastics (Gregory, 1978; Shiber, 1979; Redford et al., 1997).

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  • Other materials which may be extracted from MBT processes include glass, textiles, paper / card, and plastics. The most common of these is glass, which may be segregated with other inert materials such as stones and ceramics. These materials are typically segregated and arise as the “dense” fraction from air classifiers or ballistic separation (see Table 2 on mechanical waste preparation technologies). This dense fraction could find application for use as a low grade aggregate; however this would be subject to achieving a suitable quality material.

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  • The hazards of methylmercury poisoning received modern international attention in 1956 when many of the residents of Minamata, Japan, became seriously ill, or died, after eating the fish and shellfish in Minamata Bay. A chemical plant that used methylmercury to manufacture plastic (acetaldehyde) was dumping methylmercury-contaminated wastes into Minamata Bay. The mercury built up or bioaccumulated in the fish and shellfish, which were a major part of the residents’ diets. A similar tragedy unfolded in the nearby town of Nigata, Japan.

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  • For surface treatment processes of metals and plastics by electrolytic and chemical processes using solvents, the Integrated Pollution, Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive 96/61/EC applies. Industrial production processes account for a considerable share of overall pollution in Europe (for emissions of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances, wastewater emissions and waste). The EU has established a set of common rules for permitting and controlling industrial installations in this IPPC Directive.

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  • This study, the first to investigate workplace contamination in areas in Ghana where e-waste recycling and disposal is carried out, focussed on the main centre for this type of work, at the Agbogbloshie scrap market in Ghana’s capital, Accra. One of the numerous similar, though far smaller, operations that take place throughout Ghana was also investigated, at the location of a scrap dealer in Korforidua, a smaller city to the north of Accra. At these workshops, e-waste is recycled in a crude way, primarily involving manual disassembly and open burning to isolate copper from plastics.

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