Prenatal care

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Williams obstetrics" presents the following contents: Overview; maternal anatomy and physiology; placentation, embryogenesis and fetal development; preconceptional and prenatal care, the fetal patient, early pregnancy complications, labor.

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  • For years, prenatal care has been recognized as a component of obstetrical care; however, until the latter half of the twentieth century it has been relatively limited. In the 1970s and 1980s studies showed that an investment in earlier and more comprehensive prenatal care resulted in a cost savings by decreasing preterm births and delivery complications. Over the past 20 years, as technology and the Human Genome Project have impacted medical care, the scope of prenatal care has also changed.

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  • Abuse of addictive substances is a serious problem that has a significant impact on areas such as health, the economy, and public safety. Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is a lack of information on effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. In this study, an animal model was established to study effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on offspring.

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  • Oral health should be an integral part of prenatal care (1;2). Although we have known for a long time that oral health is important, some pregnant women are not receiving oral health care services (2;3). Prenatal care providers can play a crucial role in breaking down barriers to access and raising awareness about the importance of oral health.

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  • Midwife – Often, these practitioners are women with specialized knowledge in prenatal care, birthing assistance and aftercare. The midwife may employ the use of massage, diets, medicines and ritual, prayers and/or counselling. Traditional midwifery exists worldwide and involves a variety of skills, often biophysical, but can also include spiritual and ritual activity as well. None of the specialized categories are solely exclusive; rather, they are often interdependent and some practitioners may hold a number of specialized knowledges.

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  • Lux discusses the spiritual nature of healing in Plains culture and how one Blackfoot woman, Last Calf, contracted tuberculosis and dreamt of a cure. She was instructed to boil pitch of the lodgepole pine and drink the brew. She was recorded as vomiting profusely until her chest was cleared. Last Calf’s remedy was widely used for tubercular cough. Lux also elaborates on the high social standing of Plains midwives and how they not only performed prenatal care, but also postnatal care for the woman and her child months after the baby was born.

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  • Obstetrics and gynaecology is a dynamic and rapidly changing speciality. Great advances have been made in prenatal diagnosis, the management of infertility and contraceptive techniques. The introduction of minimally invasive surgical procedures has reduced bed occupancy and analgesic requirements allowing women to return home more rapidly. Service delivery development, required to meet improving NHS standards, has seen the introduction of a new multidisciplinary approach, new roles for midwives and the emergence of the gynaecological nurse practitioner....

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  • Research has suggested a link between nutritional deficiencies in early (including prenatal) life, and the development of chronic diseases—cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, cancer, and osteoporosis, among others—some decades later (World Health Organization 2000a, 2000b; Jacoby 2004). A possible link between early nutritional deficiencies and obesity has also been suggested, and it remains an area of ongoing research (Pan American Health Organization 2003).

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Thompson & Thompson genetics in medicine" presents the following contents: Developmental genetics and birth defects, cancer genetics and genomics, risk assessment and genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and screening, application of genomics to medicine and personalized health care, ethical and social issues in genetics and genomics.

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  • Making Women’s Preventive Care Affordable, Including Contraception. Under the Affordable Care Act, most insurance companies will be required to cover basic preventive health services – including contraception – at no extra cost. In July 2011, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued groundbreaking recommendations for which women’s preventive services should be covered. As a result, an estimated 20.

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  • The correct early diagnosis of pregnancy is often urgent. For example, a diagnosis is essential to institute studies or treatment of problems that may jeopardize the life or health of mother or offspring. Today this is usually accomplished by early beta-subunit hCG testing or ultrasonic scanning because a definite clinical diagnosis of pregnancy before the second missed period is possible in only about two thirds of patients. However, the practitioner must be familiar with the signs and symptoms of pregnancy to properly test for and treat the early pregnancy. ...

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  • Within the past decade, scholars have begun to reveal the important role African American midwives played in the reproductive experiences of southern women, both black and white. This book is a contribution to the documentation of that African American presence. It is also a requiem to the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that have been lost. If, thanks to the classic movie Gone with the Wind, popular imagery has the African American woman faced with the prospect of having to help deliver a baby being completely hysterical, then recent scholarship counters that portrayal.

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  • Variations in oral health practice patterns reflect several factors (1;3;22). First, oral health screening and referral are not routinely included in prenatal care. Second, many oral health professionals are hesitant to treat pregnant women. Third, while most children do not visit a dentist until age three, these same children usually have visited a child health professional 11 times for well-child visits during the same time period. Although there are gaps in knowledge, there is sufficient evidence to recommend appropriate oral health care for pregnant women and young children.

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  • These recommendations have been developed to assist health care professionals to educate women about oral health and to improve the overall health of women and children. These guidelines can be used by: 1) prenatal care providers to integrate oral health risk assessment and referral into routine prenatal care; 2) oral health professionals to provide appropriate treatment for pregnant women; 3) child health professionals to include oral health risk assessment as part of well-child care and to provide referral.

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  • Quality of health care has received recent attention as a determinant of child health. Barber and Gertler (2001) conclude that in Indonesia children who live in communities with high quality care are healthier compared with children who live in areas with poor quality. Peabody et al (1998) showed that Jamaican women with access to high quality prenatal care have higher birth weights than women with access to poor quality care. It is clear, however, that to establish causal relationships between access and/or quality care and child health is extremely difficult.

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  • For example, despite a lack of prenatal care that parallels that of African-Americans, Latina mothers are far less likely to deliver low birth-weight babies with medical complications. Researchers hypothesize that this is because of healthy behaviors (avoidance of alcohol, non-smoking, high consumption of fruits and vegetables) that are more common in immigrant Latino cultures. Researchers can pinpoint health disparities among communities, but they are also beginning to recognize the wealth of healthy traditions that other cultures have to offer.

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  • The guidance assumes the presence of a trained health worker to administer the uterotonic, the medicine is used after childbirth for postpartum hemorrhage, and that 600 micrograms of misoprostol is administered. In low-resource settings, these conditions are not often met, which poses a disadvantage to the selection and use of misoprostol.

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  • The Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) uses various types of quality measures. The HEDIS clinical performance measures are based on information such as members’ medical records. These measures help to compare how well plans prevent and treat illness. For example, one HEDIS measure looks at how many adult smokers or recent quitters were advised to quit by a health professional in the plan. Another looks at whether two-year- olds are up to date on recommended shots.

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  • The use of nitrous oxide should be limited to cases where topical and local anesthetics are inadequate. In such situations, consultation with the prenatal care provider would be prudent. Adequate precautions must be taken to prevent hypoxia, hypotension and aspiration (13). Alterations in anatomy and physiology induced by pregnancy have anesthetic implications and present potential hazards for the mother and the fetus. Therefore, most anesthesiologists prefer to use local and regional anesthetics for pregnant women....

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  • Oral health professionals should be aware of hypertensive disorders because of increased risk of bleeding during procedures and should consult with the prenatal care provider before initiating dental procedures in women with uncontrolled severe hypertension. Blood pressure values of greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg are considered mild hypertension and values greater than or equal to 160/110 mmHg are considered severe hypertension.

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