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Presence of nucleophiles

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  • In recent years, great focus has been placed upon polymer thin films. These polymer thin films are important in many technological applications, ranging from coatings and adhesives to organic electronic devices, including sensors and detectors. Polymers can be prepared using chemical and/or electrochemical methods of polymerization. There are a few advantages of electrosynthesis over chemical methods.

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  • Much faster alkylation of enolate anions can often be achieved in dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) than in the usual protic solvents. The presence of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) or a triamine or tetramine can also enhance the rate of alkylation. This is thought to be because of the fact that these solvents or additives solvate the cation, but not the enolate, thereby separating the cation–enolate ion pair. This leaves a relatively free enolate ion, which would be expected to be a more reactive nucleophile than the ion pair.

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