Price of Strike

Bài giảng Chapter 8: Financial options and their valuation presents of Financial options, BlackScholes Option Pricing Model. It helps you learn better.
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For bonds, debentures, assetbacked securities and other debt securities, the fair value represents the bid price provided by independent security pricing services. Shortterm investments are included in the Statement of Investment Portfolio at their fair value. Unlisted warrants are valued based on a pricing model which considers factors such as the market value of the underlying security, strike price and terms of the warrant.
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Upon receipt of an exercise notice, OCC will then assign this exercise notice to one or more Clearing Members with short positions in the same series in accordance with its established procedures. The Clearing Member will, in turn, assign one or more of its customers (either randomly or on a first in first out basis) who hold short positions in that series. The assigned Clearing Member will then be obligated to sell (in the case of a call) or buy (in the case of a put) the underlying shares of stock at the specified strike price.
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Standardized option contracts provide orderly, efficient, and liquid option markets. Except under special circumstances, all stock option contracts are for 100 shares of the underlying stock. The strike price of an option is the specified share price at which the shares of stock will be bought or sold if the buyer of an option, or the holder, exercises his option. Strike prices are listed in increments of 2.5, 5, or 10 points, depending on the market price of the underlying security, and only strike prices a few levels above and below the current market price are traded.
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The strike price, or exercise price, of an option is the specified share price at which the shares of stock can be bought or sold by the holder, or buyer, of the option contract if he exercises his right against a writer, or seller, of the option. To exercise your option is to exercise your right to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) the underlying shares at the specified strike price of the option. The strike price for an option is initially set at a price which is reasonably close to the current share price of...
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The value of an option depends heavily upon the price of its underlying stock. As previously explained, if the price of the stock is above a call option's strike price, the call option is said to be inthemoney. Likewise, if the stock price is below a put option's strike price, the put option is inthemoney. The difference between an inthe money option's strike price and the current market price of a share of its underlying security is referred to as the option's intrinsic value. Only inthemoney options have intrinsic value.
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This property is required because the empirically observed densities of returns contrast with the Gaussian model [see Pagan 1996]. This rejection results from two stylised facts. First, large price changes appear more frequently than the normal density would lead to expect. Second, there are indications of significant asymmetry in stock returns. In other words, negative and positive price changes do not have the same probability. These two stylised facts are also apparent in implied volatilities.
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The following will be discussed in this chapter: Value options using historical vol, moving average vol (MAV), exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH); calculate option model implied volatility surfaces  time skew (a.k.a. terms structure of volatility), and strike skew (Smiles and Smirks); understand what volatility surfaces reveal about option prices, volatility, and the models.
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Chapter 18 Distributions to Shareholders: Dividends and Repurchases a. The optimal distribution policy is one that strikes a balance between dividend yield and capital gains so that the firm’s stock price is maximized. b. The dividend irrelevance theory holds that dividend policy has no effect on either the price of a firm’s stock or its cost of capital.
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The CBOE normally sets the strike prices for its options so that they are spaced $2.50, $5 or $10 apart. Stocks at lower prices have smaller spaces between strike prices. When options with a new expiration date are introduced, the CBOE usually introduces two or three options with strikes nearest to the current stock price. If the price moves outside this range, new strikes may be introduced. For example, if new October options are offered on a stock currently priced at $84, then options striking at $80, $85 and $90 might be created.
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Whether blameworthy or not, the use of the cloak of social responsibility, and the nonsense spoken in its name by influential and prestigious businessmen, does clearly harm the foundations of a free society. I have been impressed time and again by the schizophrenic character of many businessmen. They are capable of being extremely farsighted and clear headed in matters that are internal to their businesses. They are incredibly shortsighted and muddleheaded in matters that are outside their businesses but affect the possible survival of business in general.
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An option contract is defined by the following elements: type (put or call), style (American, European and Capped), underlying security, unit of trade (number of shares), strike price, and expiration date. All option contracts that are of the same type and style and cover the same underlying security are referred to as a class of options. All options of the same class that also have the same unit of trade at the same strike price and expiration date are referred to as an option series. If a person's interest in a particular series of options is as a net holder (that is, if the...
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The following points support our choice of methods. First, the specification of the stochastic process is complex due to the variety of possible parameterisations 9 and requires a considerable number of parameters, which increases the potential impact of estimation errors. Second, the estimation by means of finite differences requires equally spaced strike prices. For our sample, this is a considerable difficulty in the implementation, as section 2.2 demonstrates. Third, regarding the performance of the tree approach, there is little evidence of superior results 10 .
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To implement this method a problem is that the observed option prices do not provide a continuous range, so that the resulting RND is not a wellbehaved function. We overcome this problem by using the smoothed volatility smile. From the observed option prices, the implied volatilities are extracted by means of the BlackScholes pricing function. To obtain a smoothed volatility smile we then transform our data set of implied volatilities from the volatility/strike space to the volatility/delta space.
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Option buyers pay a price for the right to buy or sell the underlying security. This price is called the option premium. The premium is paid to the writer, or seller, of the option. In return, the writer of a call option is obligated to deliver the underlying security (in return for the strike price per share) to an option buyer if the call is exercised and, likewise, the writer of a put option is obligated to take delivery of the underlying security (at a cost of the strike price per share) from an option buyer if the put is exercised. Whether or not an option...
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A put option contract gives its holder the right to sell a specified number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price on or before the expiration date of the contract. I. Buying puts to participate in downward price movements. Put options may provide a more attractive method than shorting stock for profiting on stock price declines, in that, with purchased puts, you have a known and predetermined risk. The most you can lose is the cost of the option. If you short stock, the potential loss, in the event of a price upturn, is unlimited.
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Hence, the value of a European call option is determined by the difference between the current price of the underlying asset and the strike price. If this distance is positive, i.e. if the option is in the money, then the current payoff of the position is positive. In case the strike price is higher than the current stock price, i.e. if the contract is OTM, the value of the call option is still larger than zero, because until maturity, the price difference can become positive.
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The analysis that follows produces some fairly striking results. To begin with, I document the strong negative correlation between priceearnings ratios and expected (as well as actual) inflation. This relationship is shown to be robust to corrections for the distortionary effects of inflation on accounting earnings.
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Buying options is the best way to start trading options. The big advantage that you have is that you can’t lose more than you pay for the option. That is not true of some other option strategies such as option writing.The major error made by option buyers and the reason some take big losses is that they pay too much for their options. In fact, most option authorities recommend buying inthemoney options where the stock price is across the strike price.
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We consider the problem of optimal investment in a risky asset, and in derivatives written on the price process of this asset, when the underlying asset price process is a pure jump L´ evy process. The duality approach of Karatzas and Shreve is used to derive the optimal consumption and investment plans. In our economy, the optimal derivative payoff can be constructed from dynamic trading in the risky asset and in European options of all strikes.
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