Processing of RNA

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  • The nonphotosynthetic mutant ofArabidopsis hcf152is impaired in the processing of the chloroplast polycistronic transcript, psbB-psbT-psbH-petB-petD, resulting in non-production of the essential photosynthetic cytochromeb6 f complex. The nucleus-encodedHCF152gene was identified to encode a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein com-posed primarily of 12 PPR motifs, similar to other proteins of this family that were identified in mutants defected in chloroplast gene expression.

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  • Because P2P systems designers have to a large extent failed to overcome these challenges, the semantics provided by these systems is typically quite weak. In most content sharing systems, only popular content is readily accessible — yet content popularity seems to be driven by Zipf distributions, in which a large fraction of requests are directed to unpopular content. Similarly, current content sharing systems ignore problems such as updates to content, and they typically only support retrieval of objects by name.

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  • The transfer of genetic information from the level of the nucleic acid sequence of a gene to the level of the amino acid sequence of a protein or to the nucleotide sequence of RNA is termed gene expression. The entire process of gene expression in eucaryotes includes the following steps:

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  • The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in the initiation, elongation and processing of primary transcripts. These activities are at least partially regulated by the phosphory-lation of the CTDby three cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), namely CDK7, CDK8 and CDK9. In this study, we systematically compared the phosphorylation of differ-ent recombinant CTD substrates by recombinant CDK7/ CycH/MAT1, CDK8/CycCandCDK9/CycT1 kinases.We showed that CDK7, CDK8 and CDK9 produce different patterns of phosphorylation of the CTD. ...

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  • RNA processing is an essential process in eukaryotic cells, creating different RNA species from one and the same gene. RNA processing occurs on nearly all kinds of RNAs, including mRNA that codes for proteins, ribosomal RNA, tRNA, snRNAs, and RNA. RNA processing usually occurs co-transcriptionally, and many factors are recruited by the RNA polymerase itself. This stimulates RNA processing by enhancing the correct assembly of factors as the RNA is being produced. Some factors, such as splice factors and cleavage factors for rRNA, are also recruited by the growing RNA-chain.

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  • Chapter 16 - Other RNA processing events. This chapter includes contents: Ribosomal RNA processing, transfer RNA processing, trans-splicing, RNA editing, posttranscriptional control of gene expression, post-transcriptional control of gene expression: RNA interference.

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  • Chapter 16 - Other RNA processing events. This chapter includes contents: Ribosomal RNA processing, transfer RNA processing, trans-splicing, RNA editing, posttranscriptional control of gene expression, post-transcriptional control of gene expression: RNA interference.

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  • Chapter 17 - From gene to protein. This chapter presents the following content: The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes specify proteins, transcription and translation are the two main processing linking gene to protein, in the genetic code, nucleotide triplets specify amino acids, in the genetic code, nucleotide triplets specify amino acids.

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  • Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed contaminants and the oxidants.

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  • Flow of genetic information. Multiple extracellular signals activate intracellular signal cascades that result in altered regulation of gene expression through the interaction of transcription factors with regulatory regions of genes. RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA that is processed to mRNA by excision of intronic sequences. The mRNA is translated into a polypeptide chain to form the mature protein after undergoing posttranslational processing.

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  • Group II introns are both catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that move through a process catalyzed by a RNP complex consisting of an intron-encoded protein and the spliced intron lariat RNA. Group II intron-encoded proteins are multifunctional and contain an N-terminal reverse transcriptase domain, followed by a putative RNA-binding domain (domain X) associated with RNA splicing or maturase activity and a C-terminal DNA binding⁄DNA endonuclease region.

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  • Chapter 21 (part 2) - Transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know the functions of the beta, beta’ and alpha subunits; know the function of the sigma factor and how it affects the binding of the RNA polymerase complex to the promoter; know what concensus sequences are; know the names of the two major concensus sequences associated with the ER. Coli promoter region (-35 region and the Pribnow box (-10 region);....

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  • Despite some clear successes, many countries are still failing to implement the policy and programme changes needed to improve access to affordable medicines. Although the challenges faced differ from country to country, a common problem is a lack of techni- cal capacity to link price data to local policy processes (and so determine the causes of high prices and unexplained price variations) and to identify and prepare suitable lines of response.

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  • Though the resaw process can be easy and a delight when the machines are well adjusted and your stock has consistent grain, it can be a nightmare when either aren't. Resaw on the band saw requires that the guides be adjusted carefully. If you have only cut thinner stock on your band saw (up to 2" or so) you may have never had the need to carefully adjust the guides. Here it is critical so that the blade is guided in the same direction both below the table and above the work on the descending arm. Better quality replacement...

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  • BacterialRNApolymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of gene expression that is responsible for the synthesis of all types of cellular RNAs. The process of transcription is accompanied by complex structural rearrangements of RNAP. Despite the recent progress in structural studies of RNAP, detailed mechanisms of conformational changes of RNAP that occur at different stages of transcription remain unknown.

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  • There is still a controversy over the mechanism of promoter DNA strand separation upon open transcription complex (RPo) formation by Escheri-chia coli RNA polymerase: is it a single or a stepwise process controlled by Mg 2+ ions and temperature? To resolve this question, the kinetics of pseudo-first-order oxidation of thymine residues by KMnO4 in the )11…+2 DNA region of RPo at thekPRpromoter was examined under single-hit conditions as a function of temperature (13–37C) in the absence or presence of 10 mmMgCl2....

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  • Rio1 is the founding member of the RIO family of atypical serine kinases that are universally present in all organisms from archaea to mammals. Activity of Rio1 was shown to be absolutely essential inSaccharomyces cerevisiaefor the processing of 18S ribosomal RNA, as well as for proper cell cycle progression and chromosome maintenance. We determined high-resolution crystal structures ofArchaeoglobus fulgidusRio1 in the presence and absence of bound nucleotides.

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  • distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author,

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  • Lecture Biology - Chapter 15: Genes and how they work. In this chapter, you will learn to: Differentiate among the three kinds of RNA in terms of structure and function; understand the kind of code present in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; describe the process of transcription, its machinery, and end products; describe the process of translation, its machinery, and end products;...

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  • Neurodevelopment is a dynamic and complex process, which involves interactions of thousands of genes. Understanding the mechanisms of brain development is important for uncovering the genetic architectures of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

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