Public revenue

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  • This new Third Edition of Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective is being completed in the midst of public debate over President Obama’s health care reform proposals. Debate over health care is hardly new. The First Edition of this text was published in 1996, shortly after the rejection of President Clinton’s health care reform proposal. The Second Edition of this text was published in 2004, shortly after President Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health had issued its fi nal report decrying the state of public mental health in the United States....

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  • Learning outcome of chapter 10: List alternative sources of government revenue; define a tax and describe the structure of tax rates; distinguish between general and selective taxes, specific and ad valorem taxes, as well as direct and indirect taxes; list the properties of a good tax; explain what is meant by an equitable tax;...

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  • In this chapter: Distinguish between different indirect taxes and indicate their relative, importance as sources of revenue, discuss the merits of indirect taxation, describe the consumption type VAT, explain the economic effects of VAT, describe the personal consumption tax base, discuss the rationale for a personal consumption tax,...

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  • This chapter explain why sub-national governments exist at all and compare the merits of fiscal decentralisation and centralisation; describe the Tiebout model; describe the assignment of expenditure functions and revenue sources (tax powers) to the national, provincial, and local spheres of government in South Africa; distinguish between tax competition and tax harmonisation.

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the main categories of government spending and the main sources of government revenue; summarize the different philosophies regarding the distribution of a nation's tax burden; explain the principles relating to tax shifting, tax incidence, and the efficiency losses caused by taxes; demonstrate how the distribution of income between rich and poor is affected by government taxes, transfers, and spending.

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  • Exploiting a unique data set containing information about the estimated bribe payments of Ugandan firms, the authors study the relationship between bribe payments, taxes, and firm growth in Uganda for the period 1995-97. Using industry-location averages to circumvent the potential problem of endogeneity, and to deal with issues of measurement error, they find that both the rate of taxation, and the rate of bribery are negatively correlated with firm growth.

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  • .How to Make Money Online with eBay, Yahoo!, and Google A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Three Online Services to Make One Successful Business .This page intentionally left blank .How to Make Money Online with eBay, Yahoo!, and Google A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Three Online Services to Make One Successful Business Peter Kent Jill K. Finlayson McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto .Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America.

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  • It is in compliance with the earnest requests of colleagues and friends that I have embarked on the task of editing a handbook of governmental accounting. Practitioners in the private sector, public administrators, and students in colleges and universities will find this handbook a useful reference. We hope our readers from a diverse range of fields will use it to gain understanding and familiarity with government accounting concepts.

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  • The debate on the effect of corruption on economic growth has been a hotly contested issue for several decades. Often, the effect of corruption is thought of as being something like a tax, differing primarily in that the payment does not end up as public revenues.1 To the extent that this deprives the government of revenue required to provide productive public goods, corruption may be more detrimental to growth than taxation.

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  • Third, information is better if it is more highly disaggregated (more detailed). For example, data on wastes produced by individual processes or product lines is better than data on wastes created by an entire factory. For instance, accounting that assigns a wide variety of costs to overhead is problematic because of a lack of disaggregation. Disaggregation is necessary to incremental financial analysis -- i.e., the evaluation of investment or production opportunities based on their incremental costs and incremental contributions to revenue.

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  • Broadly defined, an audit is a systematic review of operations and practices to ensure that relevant requirements are met.Traditionally, the term audit is associated with principles of accounting. Because of this,many people perceive a safety audit as an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) procedure or a financial accounting procedure. Indeed, the safety audit may apply similar methodolo- gies used in financial audits to mitigate safety risks within any facility or opera- tion. A sound business enterprise must check its safety practices as carefully as its accounting records.

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  • Abstract Exploiting a unique data set containing information on the estimated bribe payments of Ugandan firms, we study the relationship between bribery payments, taxes and firm growth over the period 1995-97. Using industry-location averages to circumvent the potential problem of endogeneity, and to deal with issues of measurement error, we find that both the rate of taxation and bribery are negatively correlated with firm growth.

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  • SAIs of the “courts of audit” type have, as one of the results of their audit mission, juridical functions, primarily with respect to financial irregularities, as well as the audit responsibilities found in other SAIs. These are collegiate bodies, typically incorporating judges and at times following court procedures. They are headed by a “President” or “First president” and may have an independent Prosecutor General who can participate to the quality control process.

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  • The value for software losses due to counterfeiting in the European Union was estimated to be approximately $11 billion in 2006 compared with losses of $7.2 billion in the USA (Business Software Alliance, 2007). A similar story is apparent for the film industry with the Motion Picture Association of America reporting, through a survey of 22 countries, losses to its member studios of $6.1 billion in 2005, with $2.3 billion of that being made up of internet piracy.

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  • The available evidence suggests that they are not. Every five years, the Census Bureau conducts its nationwide Survey of Business Owners. The SBO samples privately held, nonfarm businesses of all ages, from recently founded to many years in existence. Using SBO data, the American Express OPEN report for 2011 found that just 1.8 percent of women-owned firms had revenues more than $1 million. The figure for men-owned firms was 6.3 percent In public perception, the $1 million threshold has become a sort of magic number.

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  • Having discussed robustness, Section IV turns to three extensions of our baseline results. First, we check whether the baseline results differ depending on whether the fiscal consolidation reflects changes in government spending or changes in revenue. The results suggest that fiscal multipliers were, on average, underestimated for both sides of the fiscal balance, with a slightly larger degree of underestimation associated with changes in government spending. Second, we examine forecast errors for the unemployment rate and for the components of GDP.

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  • The socialist fiscal system was implicit in the vertical structure of planning and prices. In the Soviet Union, virtually all investment activity was channeled through the budget. The primary nominal sources of tax revenue were enterprise profits and resource rents, turnover taxes charged on the difference between retail prices of consumer goods and their nominal enterprise cost, and profits of a foreign trade monopoly.

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  • Conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) on an ongoing basis, with results released quarterly, the “IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report” was initiated by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) in 1996. This report utilizes data and information reported directly to PwC, publicly available online corporate data and information provided by online ad selling companies.

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  • Although the market for small public company audits has become much less concentrated since 2002, the continuing concentration in the market for larger public companies limits these companies’ auditor choices but does not appear to have significantly affected audit fees. According to our analysis, the largest accounting firms audit 98 percent of the more than 1,500 largest public companies—those with annual revenues of more than $1 billion.

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  • The benchmarking exercise included review of compensation and benefits for the State of New  York  and  the  State  of  New  Jersey  and  significant  public  authorities  in  the  New  York  City  metropolitan  region.   In  addition,  with  respect  to  compensation  benchmarking  of  the  Port  Authority’s  four  largest  line departments,  five  to  seven public  sector  agencies  and  five  to  ten  private  sector  companies  were  initially  identified  and  reviewed  for  as  potential  peer  comparables.

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