Pulmonary region

Xem 1-20 trên 48 kết quả Pulmonary region
  • The paper presents the task of auto-detecting the tiny nodules, which will help to get more information of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We apply two image processing technique into lung tissue information recognition. (1) A repetitive smoothing-sharpening technique is proposed and its impact is assessed to beneficially enhance X-ray lung images. (2) The ridge detection algorithm is going to diagnose indeterminate nodules correctly, allowing curative resection of early-stage malignant nodules and avoiding the morbidity and mortality of surgery for benign nodules.

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  • Thanks to their traditional decentralised organisation and large distribution network, savings banks have built strong local roots and gained extensive experience in developing relation- ships with major stakeholders in the local communities. Thus, they are deeply involved in the life of the area where they operate and have a thorough understanding of the socio-eco- nomic challenges and environment. They actively contribute to local and regional economic and social development, including in the most remote areas and underserved communities.

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  • In 1978, China had only one bank. This acted both as the central bank and the commercial bank, but today there are six commercial banks, a few regional banks, and urban and rural credit co-operations, as well as the central bank. The further reform in China's financial system is still in progress. Before 1978, there were no advertisements in China, but today advertisements are part of the daily life of China's masses.

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  • Historically, savings banks have been the first intermediaries to secure the savings and invest- ments of the local population, which they mobilised to reinvest and develop their surround- ing communities. Building on their decentralised network, their deep knowledge of the local needs, specificities and actors, they naturally grew as the privileged financial partner for local and regional economic projects. They have built business relationships with major actors of the local development and growth.

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  • The Apheis programme seeks to meet the information needs of a wide range of individuals and organizations concerned with the impact of air pollution on health in Europe; and most importantly the needs of those individuals who influence and set policy in this area on the European, national, regional and local levels. Like other providers of scientific information, however, Apheis had reason to believe that its many audiences, and this one in particular, were making little use of the scientific reports it produces.

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  • The development of a respiratory tract model which accurately reflects reality is a difficult and complicated effort. This stems largely from the variety of airway shapes, airflow patterns, and cell types having different radiosensitivities. Anatomic and physiologic alterations in smokers or those exposed to chemicals, among others, further complicate modeling. In spite of the inherent difficulties, the continuing pursuit of a model that mimics actual conditions has been considered to be important by those involved in radiation protection....

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  • Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in pastoral communities of Afar.

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  • Sputum samples were fi rst classifi ed according to their macroscopic aspect in the laboratory. Salivary samples were immediately removed and a new sample was requested. The time between sputum collection and analysis was recorded. A 20–30 mm smear was made on a new slide with a wooden applicator. After heat fi xation, hot Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed: carbol fuchsin 0.3%, slow heating until steaming, rinsing after 5 min, destaining with 25% sulfuric acid, rinsing, counterstaining with methylene blue 0.3% for 1 min, rinsing and drying.

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  • The new Foundation for Social Housing (FHS) intends to enable the development of new housing built on land acquired at low cost, to be managed by non-profit organisations oper- ating in accordance with pre-defined rules. The accommodation will be provided at below- market rents and will be allocated to specific target groups (e.g. older people, students, immigrants, single income households etc.). The project involves close collaboration with the public administration, with both the Region of Lombardy and the Local Government Association being represented on the board of FHS.

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  • · Disaggregated regional or local data about the environment, sometimes linked to a geographic information system. Questions often arise about the scale of environmental data; do they pertain to a village, a province, a watershed, or the whole country? Because the SNA is national, and most countries maintain their economic data at the national (rather than the regional or local) level, environmental accounts are primarily national accounts. For example, they might tell us how much energy was consumed nationwide, not how much was consumed in each village or province.

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  • ESPON 2006 database has produced original data using NUTS1999 but also NUTS2003 divisions, which can be easily connected to basic indicator. In particular, measure of accessibility, typologies, etc. It is obvious that the new ESPON 2013 program will use the NUTS2006 divisions as reference for the future works but it is not a problem to use the former NUTS2003 division as reference for an intermediate period.

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  • During the past two decades, China’s GDP has increased by 6.3 times. This achievement, however, has given rise to problems of net energy imports, environmental pollution and ecological destruction at home, cross-border pollution, and mounting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Looking at the future, the Chinese government set up a target of quadrupling the size of its GDP in 2000 by the year 2020.

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  • These problems are caused, in part, by changes in lifestyle and demography (growing dependence on the private car, increase in one-person households, increasing resource use per capita). Solutions need to be forward-looking and militate against future risks such as the impacts of climate change (e.g. increased flooding) as well as contributing to national, regional and global policies such as progressively reducing dependency on fossil fuels.

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  • Patients and study design: The study was performed on randomly selected 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (mean age, 45.3 ± 3.8, 28 men and 22 women) who had been admitted to the Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute during 12 months (April 2008 - April 2009). Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed by the clinical parameters: presence of cough/expectoration, chest X-ray showing infiltrated and /or cavities, a minimum of one positive sputum smear and culture result for acid-fast bacilli.

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  • We set out to determine the levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first- and second-line TB drugs in an urban population in Zambia. Sputum samples were collected consecutively from all smear-positive, new and previously treated patients, from four diagnostic centres in Ndola between January and July 2006. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method against four first- and two second-line TB drugs. Results. Among 156 new cases, any resistance was observed to be 7.7%, monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was 4.5% and 1.3%, respectively.

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  • About a third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains one of the biggest killers among infectious diseases, with up to three million people dying from tuberculosis each year (Dye 1999). Diagnosis of tuberculosis generally relies on smear microscopy and culture of the sputum. The disease typically results in progressively destructive lung lesions but may affect almost any part of the body, usually with advanced wasting and death inmore than half of cases in the absence of intervention.

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  • (Ghon focus) in the lung with spread to the regional lymph node(s). In the majority of cases, the resultant cell-mediated immunity contains the disease process at this stage. Risk of disease progression is increased in the very young (3 years old) and in immune compromised children. Progression of disease occurs by 1) extension of the primary focus with or without cavitation; 2) the effects of pathological processes caused by the enlarging lymph nodes or by 3) lymphatic and/ or haematogenous spread.

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  • Of the 40 million persons living with HIV/AIDS to-date, over 60 percent reside in sub-Saharan Africa, making it the most affected region of the world, Figure 1 (1;2). HIV infection rate is still on the increase. In 2006 alone of the estimated world total of 4.3 million (3.6 – 6.6 million) new HIV infections, sub-Saharan Africa was estimated to have 2.8 million (2.4 – 3.2 million) adults and children infected with HIV. This was more than all other regions of the world combined together (2). The 2.1 million AIDS deaths in sub-Saharan Africa represented 72% of global AIDS death (2)....

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  • The reform of the ownership structure of public banks was only one part of a much broad- er set of reforms. Since the 1980s, several provisions of the Italian financial law have changed substantially. One important trigger was the legislation of the European Commu- nity, in particular, the First Banking Directive in 1977 and the Second Banking Directive in 1989. The new Consolidated Law on Banking of 1993 finally replaced the legislation of 1936. In this process, most restrictions introduced in the 1930s were removed.

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  • The increase in branch offices is more likely to be a consequence of the lifting of regional restrictions than of privatization. All large banking groups have shown a tendency to ex- pand nationally, and even smaller banks have expanded into new geographical areas. This development was not limited to privatized banks, but included other banks, although the expansion of the latter lagged behind that of the privatized banks (Deutsche Bank 2004b: 16).

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