R programming language

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  • This book is about data analysis and the programming language called R. This is rapidly becoming the de facto standard among professionals, and is used in every conceivable discipline from science and medicine to business and engineering. R is more than just a computer program; it is a statistical programming environment and language. R is free and open source and is therefore available to everyone with a computer. It is very powerful and flexible, but it is also unlike most of the computer programs you are likely used to.

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  • The C programming language is a general purpose high level language that was originally developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the Unix operating system at Bell Labs. C was originally first implemented on the DEC PDP-11 computer in 1972. In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie produced the first publicly available description of C, now known as the K&R standard. The UNIX operating system, the C compiler, and essentially all UNIX applications programs have been written in C. The C has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons....

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  • These notes are written based on the book The C Programming Language, by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, or K&R (The second edition was published in 1988 by Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-110362-8.). The sections are cross-referenced to those of K&R, for the reader who wants to pursue a more in-depth exposition.

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  • A considerable body of accumulated knowledge about the design of languages for communicating information to computers has been derived from the subfields of programming language design and semantics. It has been the goal of the P A r R group at SRI to utilize a relevant portion of this knowledge in implementing tools to facilitate communication of linguistic information to computers. The PATR-II formalism is our current computer language for encoding linguistic information.

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  • intermediate depencies between morphology, syntax and semantics. A strong, multidimensional formalism that can cope with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of language seems necessary. In t h i s chapter a graph grammar formalism based on the notions of r e l a t i o n a l graph grammars ( R a j l i c h 1975) and a t t r i b u t e d programmed graph grammars (Bunke 1982) is developed f o r parsing languages with configurational structure .

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  • This lecture gives you the briefest introduction to C from a C++ point of view. If you need to use this language, read an introductory book (e.g. K&R). This lecture gives you a hint what to look for. C is C++’s closest relative, and compatible in many areas, so much of your C++ knowledge carries over.

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  • If you’re an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning—a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation.

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  • Why learn R? Because it's rapidly becoming the standard for developing statistical software. R in a Nutshell provides a quick and practical way to learn this increasingly popular open source language and environment. You'll not only learn how to program in R, but also how to find the right user-contributed R packages for statistical modeling, visualization, and bioinformatics.

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  • R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields. This book examines this complex language using simple statistical examples, showing how R operates in a user-friendly context. Both students and workers in fields that require extensive statistical analysis will find this book helpful as they learn to use R for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, creating graphs, regression, and much more.

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  • Năm 1978, Ritchie và Brian Kernighan xuất bản lần đầu cuốn The C Programming Language. Sách này được những người lập trình biết tới như là "K&R", được dùng trong nghiều năm như là một đặc tả không chính thức của C. Phiên bản C mà cuốn sách đó đề cập thường được gọi là "K&R C". (Lần xuất bản thứ hai của cuốn này cũng bao gồm chuẩn ANSI C)

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  • Diving for bodies was not one of Scott Markman’s favorite things. He gazed across the open water at the big orange ball creeping up over the forest horizon. A passing Florida breeze rippled the glassy lake-top and caused swirls within the fading layer of fog lingering at the water’s surface. Markman found himself wishing he were somewhere else. Kneeling awkwardly on the flexible, black bottom of the rubber boat, he wormed the new regulator mouthpiece back into his sore mouth and sucked test air from the fresh aluminum tank. With his left hand he wiggled the black wrap-around mask down...

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  • Collocational knowledge is necessary for language generation. The problem is that collocations come in a large variety of forms. They can involve two, three or more words, these words can be of different syntactic categories and they can be involved in more or less rigid ways. This leads to two main difficulties: collocational knowledge has to be acquired and it must be represented flexibly so that it can be used for language generation. We address both problems in this paper, focusing on the acquisition problem. We describe a program, X t r a c t , that automatically acquires...

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  • A project of machine Czech computer manuals described, description of the presenting translation into Russian first overall and a of is a system mainly parsing parser in cooperation with Mathematical Mathematics University, Department Physics, Charles structure and c o n c e n t r a t i n g then on input text preparation algorithm programmed based on bottom-up Input texts in olmerauer's Q-systems. The texts our system should translate are software manuals DOS-4 operating to V~MS-developed which is an DOS. on system the and advanced extension to common maintained. ...

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  • Ultimately in any natural language production system the largest amount of human effort will go into the construction of the dictionary: the data base that associates objects and relations in the program's domain with the words and phrases that could be used to describe them.

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  • Many organizations are porting their C code to C++. As a matter of fact, there are probably some of your students who are trying to port their skills from C to C++. This chapter presents a lot of lessons learned by porting a lot of code.

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  • The focus in this book is on the study of market risk from a quantitative point of view. The emphasis is on presenting commonly used state-of-the-art quantitative techniques used in finance for the management of market risk and demonstrate their use employing the principal two mathematical programming languages, R and Matlab. All the code in the book can be downloaded from the book’s website at www.financialrisk forecasting.com

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  • In the preceding chapters you learned about the different report development tools available in the R/3 environment. This chapter introduces the basics of SAP’s programming language, Advanced Business Application Program (ABAP), which can be used to build custom reports. This chapter is structured differently than the others. It does not present all the features of ABAP—we leave that to the online documentation. Instead, we focus on helping you build an ABAP report using templates.

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  • Jess is a rule engine for the Java platform. To use it, you specify logic in the form of rules using one of two formats: the Jess rule language (prefered) or r XML . You also provide some of your own data for the rules to operate on. When you run the rule engine, your rules are carried out. Rules can create new data, or they can do anything that the Java programming language can do.

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  • Kernighan, B., and Ritchie, D. 1978, The C Programming Language (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall). [2] [Reference for K&R “traditional” C. Later editions of this book conform to the ANSI C standard.] Meeus, J. 1982, Astronomical Formulae for Calculators, 2nd ed., revised and enlarged (Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell). [3]

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  • [, vol.8, nos.3 and 4, June and October 1965] * by , Cambridge Language Research Unit, Cambridge, England The paper describes how the need for automatic aids to classification arose in a manual experiment in information retrieval. It goes on to discuss the problems of automatic classification in general, and to consider various methods that have been proposed. The definition of a particular kind of class, or "clump," is then put forward.

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