Reaction processes

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Advanced practical organic chemistry" has contents: Different elements, process of reaction, process of oxidation and reduction, reaction and mechanism.

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  • Reaction mechanism: the description of the step-by-step process by which reactants are changed / converted into products. A nucleophile: an electron-rich species that can form a covalent bond by donating 2 electrons to a positive center.

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  • This first part is concerned with processes in which the kinetic behaviour of a gaseous phase is rate-determining. The range of processes includes some which are carried out in vacuum systems in which Knudsen or free evaporation occurs from a condensed phase, to transport reactions where a chemical reaction occurs between a solid and the gaseous phase to produce molecular species containing some or all of the elements occurring in the solid phase.

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  • Chemicals are part of our everyday lives. The hundreds of chemicals that are manufactured by industrial processes influence what we do and how we do it. This book offers descriptions and process details of the most popular of those chemicals. The manufacture of chemicals involves many facets of chemistry and engineering which are exhaustively treated in a whole series of encyclopedic works, but it is not always simple to rapidly grasp present status of knowledge from these sources.

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  • Biofuels Engineering Process Technology has many contents: Harvesting Energy from Biochemical Reactions, Microbial Modeling of Biofuel Production, Biofuel Feedstocks, Ethanol Production, Biodiesel, Biological Production of Hydrogen, Microbial Fuel Cells.

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  • This book is an introduction to the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. The level of the presentation is what we consider appropriate for a one-semester course. The text provides a balanced approach to the understanding of: (1) both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and (2) both chemical reaction engineering and chemical reactor engineering. We have emulated the teachings of Prof. Michel Boudart in numerous sections of this text.

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  • Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state (solid, liquid, gas, dissolved). Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate. Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.

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  • Reactive liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic acids with amines and effect of solvating diluents; Liquid extraction of tall oil from wastewaters of paper industry • Supercritical fluid extraction of natural products; Enzymatic reactions in supercritical CO2; Solubilities of liquids and solids in dense CO2 with entrainer • Relation between the morphology and application properties of polymer catalysts and adsorbents • Study of the permeation and pervaporation of volatile organic substance (propan-1-ol, toluene) • Observation of the competitive adsorption on Vycor glass membr...

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  • Introduction: On 23 March 1989, electrochemists M. Fleischmann and S. Pons claimed in a press conference at the University of Utah that they had achieved nuclear fusion in a tabletop chemistry experiment. Since then, evidence of fusion in what is now called low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research has grown only slightly stronger. Their hypothesis that a novel form of thermonuclear fusion was responsible for their experimental results is still unproved.

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  • Untoward cutaneous responses to drugs can arise as a result of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms. A variety of adverse reactions result from mechanisms that do not involve an immunologic process. Drug reactions are a public health problem because of their frequent occurrence, occasional severity, and impact on the use of medications. The skin is among the organs most often affected by adverse drug reactions. The list of conditions that can be triggered by medications includes nearly all dermatologic diseases.

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  • The science of catalytic reaction engineering studies the catalyst and the catalytic process in the laboratory in order to predict how they will perform in production-scale reactors. Surprises are to be avoided in the scaleup of industrial processes. The laboratory results must account for flow, heat and mass transfer influences on reaction rate to be useful for scaleup. Calculated performance based on these results must also be useful to maximization of profit and safety and minimization of pollution.

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  • (BQ) The book examines each of the major chemical processes, such as reactions, separations, mixing, heating, cooling, pressure change, and particle size reduction and enlargement -- in logically arranged alphabetical chapters, providing you with an understanding of the essential qualitative analysis of each.

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  • The unfolding process of the Blue Copper Protein (BCP) rusticyanin (Rc) has been studied using a wide variety of biochemical techniques. Fluorescence and CD spectroscop-ies reveal that the copper ion plays an essential role in sta-bilizing the protein and that the oxidized form is more efficient than the reducedspecies in this respect. Theaddition of guanidinium chloride to Rc samples produces aggrega-tion of the protein. Gel filtration chromatography and glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments confirm the for-mation of such aggregates. ...

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  • Written by two of the foremost researchers in the field, this book studies the local times of Markov processes by employing isomorphism theorems that relate them to certain associated Gaussian processes. It builds to this material through self-contained but harmonized “mini-courses” on the relevant ingredients, which assume only knowledge of measuretheoretic probability. The streamlined selection of topics creates an easy entrance for students and experts in related fields.

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  • The RuvA, RuvB andRuvCproteins ofEscherichia coliact together to process Holliday junctions formed during recombination and DNA repair. RuvA has a well-de®ned DNA binding surface that is sculptured speci®cally to accommodate a Holliday junction and allow subsequent loading of RuvB and RuvC. A negatively charged pin pro-jecting from the centre limits binding of linear duplexDNA. The amino-acid sequences forming the pin are highly con-served.

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  • The angiogenic process in the central nervous system (CNS) is basically regulated by typical angiogenic signaling systems such as vascular endothe-lial growth factor (VEGF)–VEGF receptors and angiopoietin–Tie recep-tors. In addition to regular endothelial–pericyte interaction, the CNS vasculature has a unique system of cell to cell communication between endothelial cells and astrocytes which is known as the blood–brain barrier.

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  • Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells rec-ognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regu-lated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway.

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  • High-quality quantitative data generated under standardized conditions is critical for understanding dynamic cellular processes. We report strategies for error reduction, and algorithms for automated data processing and for establishing the widely used techniques of immunoprecipitation and immu-noblotting as highly precise methods for the quantification of protein levels and modifications.

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  • Sol-gel process, a most usefully and effectively process, has a lot of advantage for preparation of a variety of advanced materials in various structures and sizes, via polymerization of metal and semiconductor hydroxides or via hydrolysis and condensation of their alkoxides, since in nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction and nucleophilic addition (AN) reaction, the substituent with thelargest partial negative charge,is the nucleophile, and in SN reactions the substituent with the largest positive charge, + , is theleaving group or nucleofugal.

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  • Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) play an important role to create the molecular complexity in a one-step process. Based on the mechanism and process of Mannich-type reactions in the synthesis of Grammin, arylthiomethylation reactions of indole were performed by using three components: indole, p-thiocresol and a solution of formaldehyde (36%) under two activation conditions, e.g. magnetic stirring and ultrasonic irradiation. The main product, 3-(p-tolylthiomethyl)-1H-indole, was obtained in a moderate yield (54%) under short irradiation (40 minutes) by probe sonicator.

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