Reduce poverty

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  • Chapter 20 explores the causes of income inequality, its measurement, and means by which government redistributes income to reduce poverty. The Lorenz Curve (numerically, a Gini ratio) illustrates the degree of income inequality in a country. Income inequality is caused by differences in ability, education and training, discrimination, preferences and willingness to take risks, wealth, market power, luck, connections, and misfortune.

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  • The DAC Reference Document on Poverty and Health, jointly published by the OECD and the World Health Organization (WHO), is the outcome of a joint effort by DAC members working together through the DAC Network on Poverty Reduction. It builds on bilateral agency experience and the work of leading organisations such as the WHO, the World Bank and other United Nations agencies as well as non-governmental organisations.

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  • The root causes of the alarming health indicators in Afghanistan are poverty and the two decades of warfare that stalled economic and social progress and led to destruction of livelihoods and high levels of disability.

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  • Agricultural development is widely recognized as crucial for poverty reduction. At the same time, agricultural expansion and ever more intensive practices are widely recognized for their contribution to ecosystem degradation. Less well recognized is that, in many cases, agriculture offers the potential to generate both poverty reduction and better environmental outcomes. The studies presented in this volume look at one policy tool that may address this gap: payments for environmental services (PES).

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  • Vision & Guiding Principle Executive Director Report Organisational Structure Regional Manager’s Report Avoided Deforestation Regional Projects Australia Cambodia Fiji Maldives Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanuatu Finances Board of Trustees Partners 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 31 .Vision & Guiding Principles Live & Learn Environmental Education’s mission is to reduce poverty and foster greater understanding and action towards a sustainable future through education, community mobilisation and supportive partnerships.

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  • The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the world business organisation, promotes an open international trade and investment system and the market economy. Our conviction that trade is a powerful force for peace and prosperity dates from our earliest years, when the small group of business leaders who founded ICC called themselves ‘the merchants of peace ’.

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  • Agriculture is also a significant source of economic growth. In developing countries, agriculture generates on average 29 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 65 percent of the labour force. About two thirds of the world’s agricultural value added is produced in developing countries. At the same time, agriculture also plays an important role in transforming and urbanized economies, where industries and services linked to agriculture account for more than 30 percent of GDP (ibid.).

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  • The diversification of economic activity and labour market development have both been identified as possible strategies to reduce the vulnerability of the poor and enable the ascent out of poverty. Whether such policies are necessarily empow-ering for women has been much debated but less well documented. In this book we adopt a comparative case study approach using original survey material for three African countries and a state in India to investigate these links

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  • Reducing Poverty and Improving the Environment and Citizen Health in Brazil Favelas (slums) are a primary feature of urban development in Brazil. These informal settlements often occupy environmentally precarious areas such as steep hillsides and riverbanks, and usually lack key infrastructure, in particular sanitation and sewerage systems. This has resulted in increased rates of disease and mortality. Brazil has, however, made significant steps in addressing the problems which beset the favelas.

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  • The Lao People’s Democratic Republic National Growth and Poverty Eradication Strategy (the equivalent of its Poverty Reduction Strategy) marks population issues, including SRH and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as national priorities, while acknowledging limited success in previous reproductive health initiatives. The current draft for 2011–2015 is targeted towards achieving the MDGs, and priority directions are less explicit in terms of reproductive health (see Box 3).

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  • efficiency and quality. NGOs should be involved as management partners of the government for the shrimp cultivating areas. This will help reduce social tensions among various groups in the cultivating areas and ensure participation of the poor communities in all activities including decision making process. 9. Financial Support: Farmers, depot owners, small boat owners and transporters suffer from lack of capital to perform fishing activities. They have to rely on informal sources such as middlemen and traders for credit at a very high cost.

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  • From the workshops that the IDB has had in the region, it seems that regardless of whether the objective of funds is expressed as poverty re- duction or alleviation, as long as there is a poverty problem, there is a role for a fund. Funds should be thought of as instruments to comple- ment other actions and programs of governments to reduce poverty. What social funds do in any particular country is going to depend on what will help the poor, what the government is doing, and what local conditions prevail. The funds themselves are small. The government does other things.

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  • Interest in farmland is rising. And, given commodity price volatility, grow- ing human and environmental pressures, and worries about food security, this interest will increase, especially in the developing world. Many countries have suitable land available that is either not cultivated or produces well below its potential. This was a development challenge even before the food price rise of 2008. Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor are rural, and most are engaged in farming.

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  • These banking successes should be celebrated. They pave the way for broadening access to finance for hundreds of millions, perhaps even billions, of low-income people who today lack ready access to formal financial services. Such access on its own is not yet proven to increase economic growth or to reduce poverty on a large-scale level—and, as a general proposition, we doubt that it will on its own.

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  • In multiple-tier markets, stock exchange operators have also supported the transition of companies from less regulated compartments for small cap companies to their main markets, in a number of instances providing assistance to companies adopting the required higher governance standards. For instance, the TSX facilitates the transition of companies from its Venture Exchange 22 to its main market, which features higher governance requirements.

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  • In the following, we identify the unique subgame perfect equilibrium of the sequential game described above. Furthermore, government’s regulation is shown to reduce the diversity in the programs offered by the channels at equilibrium: the lower the upperlimit imposed by the government to the ad- vertising rate, the weaker the diversity in the programs! There are at least three papers closely related to the present analysis. Vaglio (1995) proposes a Hotelling-type model of the audience for TV- broadcasting which shares several properties with ours.

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  • Both sides are right to some extent. But these simplifications- and the resulting polarised debate- do not get us very far. Yet we all share the objective of reducing poverty in a lasting manner, and there is nowadays wide agreement in the development community that the environment is crucial for the sustaining of livelihoods.

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  • Many of the policies and other factors underlying poverty and environmental degradation are likewise closely linked. They originate in policies and governance structures at the local, sectoral, national and even international levels. Too often, inappropriate policy and regulatory frameworks prevent the poor- most notably women- from developing their capabilities and productive potential, and protecting the natural resource base on which they depend.

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  • Conditional transfer programs have been shown to improve child health. PROGRESA, for instance, where nutritional supplements were linked to the participation in various educational programs, has had a significant impact on increasing child growth and in reducing the probability of child stunting. However, it is unclear if this improvement is because more resources are available to the household, or because the program improves the access of the household to health care facilities (Skoufias, 2001).

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  • The EITC was established amid the political debate over the NIT that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. The NIT held great promise to the early designers of the war on poverty since it would solve the difficult integration issues that arise with categorical antipoverty programs—the need for bu- reaucracies to administer and enforce eligibility and benefit rules and the need to mitigate potentially high marginal tax rates that recipients face as earnings increase.

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