Religion and welfare state

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  • In this paper we argue that religion and welfare state spending are substitute mecha- nisms that insure individuals against adverse life events. As a result, individuals who are religious will prefer lower levels of social insurance provision than will individuals who are secular, and countries that are more religious on average will have lower levels of welfare state spending.

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  • To fully capture the salient qualities of deeply engaging experiences, a broader palette of emotions is necessary. One kind of emotion is the feel- ing of understanding in an experience of learning. The term “feeling of understanding” highlights the vital quality of learning that is implicit, non-logical, and non-verbal. Examples include the feeling that an indi- vidual may have for the meaning of a difficult text passage, the symbolic significance of something in a work of art, the connection between an abstract idea and a concrete part of one’s world,...

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  • Globally, clinker is typically produced in rotary kilns. Rotary kilns can be either wet process or dry process kilns. Wet process rotary kilns are more energy-intensive and have been rapidly phased out over the past few decades in almost all industrialized countries except the US and the former Soviet Union.

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  • In the United States, insurance regulators require bonds and preferred stocks to be reported in statutory financial statements in one of six National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) designations categories that denote credit quality. If an accepted rating organisation (ARO) has rated the security, the security is not required to be filed with the NAIC’s Securities Valuation Office (SVO). Rather, the ARO rating is used to map the security to one of the six NAIC designation categories.

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  • Given these diverse viewpoints, understandably, the assessment of individual events was also different among investment banks. One bank considered the struggle about the early warning to Germany and Portugal in February, and the Council’s decision not to issue such a warning was considered a lost opportunity to enforce the Stability and Growth Pact as the existing procedure of fiscal co-ordination among European countries. 7 Conversely another bank argued “no warning, no problem,” since the two countries confirmed their commitment to their fiscal target.

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  • The next section discusses contractual use of accounting earnings and implications for the inclusion of cash flow forecasts in earnings and the relative abilities of earnings and cash flows to forecast future earnings. Section 3 models operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated in earnings.

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  • Although the market for small public company audits has become much less concentrated since 2002, the continuing concentration in the market for larger public companies limits these companies’ auditor choices but does not appear to have significantly affected audit fees. According to our analysis, the largest accounting firms audit 98 percent of the more than 1,500 largest public companies—those with annual revenues of more than $1 billion.

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  • It is important to recognize that the main contributor to the current funding problem facing public pension funds was the collapse of the housing bubble and the subsequent downturn in the economy and the stock market. The plunge in the stock market led to a sharp decline in the value of pension fund assets. Figure 1 below projects pension fund assets if pensions had continued to earn on average a 4.5 percent nominal rate of return in the period since the end of 2007. Under this assumption, state and local pension fund assets would have been $857 billion...

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  • Score gains in the Writing component of the Test have been the main focus of much of this research. Green (2004) presents the findings of four studies, all of which involved candidates whose average initial score was 5.0 and who were undertaking periods of English language instruction of not more than three months. Average score gains in these four studies were less than half a band. In these studies, the candidates who achieved a score of 5.0 or below on the first test tended to improve on the second, while those achieving a score of 7.0 tended to receive a...

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  • While 2K projection had a long head start, theater owners currently purchasing digital projectors in the US are overwhelmingly embracing Sony Digital Cinema™ 4K. As of August 2011, over 9,000 screens worldwide had converted to Sony 4K projectors. This includes more than 7,000 screens in the United States alone. About half of these Sony systems are also 3D capable. In fact, in the US, Sony 4K accounts for nearly as many 3D-capable projectors installed as all other brands combined. This large and rapidly growing installed base of 4K projectors has prompted the studios to...

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  • This paper doesn’t outline how to measure and report social sustainability. This task has already been undertaken by the author and presented elsewhere (see Kimmet and Wikstrom 2005). The much less ambitious objective of shoring up the case for such measurement frameworks is all that’s attempted here. Arguably though, this is at least as important as how to do it, given that many real estate investors will want to evaluate potential investments in their own way once it is clearly understood what social sustainability is, and why it should be taken seriously. ...

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  • If a warranty is offered, make sure you save the sales slip as well as information on the warranty. You should also record the date of store purchase. Keep all this information in case you need it later. If the manufacturer does not offer a warranty, find out if the store will assure responsibility for defects, poor workmanship, or damage during delivery. Always get warranties in writing; oral warranties are worthless. Also check to see if there is a warranty on the fabric or fibers.

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  • Condominium ownership is ownership of a unit, usually in a highrise. Condominiums can also be townhouses or lowrises. Condominium ownership means you own the unit you live in and share ownership rights for the common space of the building. Common space includes areas such as corridors, the grounds around the building, and facilities such as a swimming pool and recreation rooms. Condominium owners together control the common areas through an owners’ association. The association makes decisions about using and maintaining the common space.

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  • Data were extracted into separate databases for studies reporting on crops and livestock products (including meat, milk and eggs). Extracted data included all relevant information on study characteristics, methods and results. Data on factors outlined in the conceptual framework on nutrient variability (Figure 1) were also extracted when available. For the first 10 included articles, data extraction was performed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. Extracted data were compared and any inconsistencies noted and corrected as necessary.

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  • From the early days of the Internet, when only e-mail servers were on the network, a hacker’s ultimate goal was to gain root access to the UNIX host that ran these applications. With root access, the hacker had full control of the system and could often collect enough information to gain access to the rest of the network and other partner networks. E-business application hosts have increased the number of targets for hackers.

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  • Bonds are securities that establish a creditor relationship between the purchaser (creditor) and the issuer (debtor). The issuer receives a certain amount of money in return for the bond, and is obligated to repay the principal at the end of the lifetime of the bond (maturity). Typically, bonds also require coupon or interest payments. Since all these payments are determined as part of the contracts, bonds are also called fixed income securities. A straight bond is one where the purchaser pays a fixed amount of money to buy the bond.

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  • The compensation or return theoretically due to or actually gained by a country’s citizens when a country’s resources such as oil or forests are exploited for export has always depended on complex social institutions, property rights and power relations. In an era of increasing trade, investment and financial liberalisation, the relationship between the exploitation of resources and the accrual of benefits to poor citizens is even more difficult.

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  • This approach has strengths and weaknesses. Its great strength is that it is supremely logical: think before you build, write it all down, follow a plan, and keep everything as organized as possible. It has just one great weakness: humans are involved. For example: this approach requires that the good ideas all come at the beginning of the development cycle, where they can be incorporated into the plan.

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  • The MyLifeBits shell is the main user interface. It allows queries to be viewed as a list, variable sized thumbnails, and a timeline. It enables refinement or pivoting according to metadata and links as described in the following section. It provides for the creation of text and voice comments. For example, any number of selected items may be commented on using the annotation function with a simple button or right click operation (comments may be text, voice, or any file). Similarly, these items can be assigned to collections.

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  • The probable explanation for the absence of statistical significant differences in many of the cells in Figure 7 is the relatively small number of regions in some combinations of D-P and Structural types (see Table 3 below). The IR type is particularly small, with only 23 regions. Combining the IR type with another D-P type might reduce the problem of small sample sizes. On the basis of the pattern of results in Figure 4 it could be argued that the best way to combine types would be to retain the two accessible types (IA and PRA) and to merge...

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