Religion and welfare state

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  • Globally, clinker is typically produced in rotary kilns. Rotary kilns can be either wet process or dry process kilns. Wet process rotary kilns are more energy-intensive and have been rapidly phased out over the past few decades in almost all industrialized countries except the US and the former Soviet Union.

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  • Score gains in the Writing component of the Test have been the main focus of much of this research. Green (2004) presents the findings of four studies, all of which involved candidates whose average initial score was 5.0 and who were undertaking periods of English language instruction of not more than three months. Average score gains in these four studies were less than half a band. In these studies, the candidates who achieved a score of 5.0 or below on the first test tended to improve on the second, while those achieving a score of 7.0 tended to receive a...

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  • In setting up a national statistical organization, management must come to grips with a number of key issues concerning dissemination to the media. It might be preferable to develop policies on many of these issues, which include: Allocating resources: The national statistical organization must first decide how much it wants to spend on media relations. Financial resources are not infinite. An organization’s wish to be as helpful to the media as possible must be counterbalanced by a program that fits within its available budget. ...

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  • Having thus introduced the papers collectively, let me also say something about them individually, thereby giving some sense for which kinds of economists might find which papers especially interesting. Akerlof and Kranton’s paper has clear links to both labor economics and organizational economics, and also more broadly to behavioral economics.

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  • The probable explanation for the absence of statistical significant differences in many of the cells in Figure 7 is the relatively small number of regions in some combinations of D-P and Structural types (see Table 3 below). The IR type is particularly small, with only 23 regions. Combining the IR type with another D-P type might reduce the problem of small sample sizes. On the basis of the pattern of results in Figure 4 it could be argued that the best way to combine types would be to retain the two accessible types (IA and PRA) and to merge...

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  • To fully capture the salient qualities of deeply engaging experiences, a broader palette of emotions is necessary. One kind of emotion is the feel- ing of understanding in an experience of learning. The term “feeling of understanding” highlights the vital quality of learning that is implicit, non-logical, and non-verbal. Examples include the feeling that an indi- vidual may have for the meaning of a difficult text passage, the symbolic significance of something in a work of art, the connection between an abstract idea and a concrete part of one’s world,...

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  • The MyLifeBits shell is the main user interface. It allows queries to be viewed as a list, variable sized thumbnails, and a timeline. It enables refinement or pivoting according to metadata and links as described in the following section. It provides for the creation of text and voice comments. For example, any number of selected items may be commented on using the annotation function with a simple button or right click operation (comments may be text, voice, or any file). Similarly, these items can be assigned to collections.

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  • While 2K projection had a long head start, theater owners currently purchasing digital projectors in the US are overwhelmingly embracing Sony Digital Cinema™ 4K. As of August 2011, over 9,000 screens worldwide had converted to Sony 4K projectors. This includes more than 7,000 screens in the United States alone. About half of these Sony systems are also 3D capable. In fact, in the US, Sony 4K accounts for nearly as many 3D-capable projectors installed as all other brands combined. This large and rapidly growing installed base of 4K projectors has prompted the studios to...

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  • This approach has strengths and weaknesses. Its great strength is that it is supremely logical: think before you build, write it all down, follow a plan, and keep everything as organized as possible. It has just one great weakness: humans are involved. For example: this approach requires that the good ideas all come at the beginning of the development cycle, where they can be incorporated into the plan.

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  • Although the market for small public company audits has become much less concentrated since 2002, the continuing concentration in the market for larger public companies limits these companies’ auditor choices but does not appear to have significantly affected audit fees. According to our analysis, the largest accounting firms audit 98 percent of the more than 1,500 largest public companies—those with annual revenues of more than $1 billion.

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  • The next section discusses contractual use of accounting earnings and implications for the inclusion of cash flow forecasts in earnings and the relative abilities of earnings and cash flows to forecast future earnings. Section 3 models operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated in earnings.

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  • Frequent and open communication between the audit committee and the auditor is essential for the audit committee to obtain the information it needs to fulfill its responsibilities to oversee the company’s financial reporting processes. The quality of communications also provides opportunities to assess the auditor’s performance.

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  • More precisely, the question to be addressed is whether there are substitutes available at less cost than the true cost of Chemical A. Substitutes that meet this requirement will not always be available. For instance, "retro-fitting" existing production facilities in order to employ substitutes is, as a rule, likely to be quite expensive. The availability of financially viable alternative actions may be higher at the design stage of a process or product's development.

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  • Given these diverse viewpoints, understandably, the assessment of individual events was also different among investment banks. One bank considered the struggle about the early warning to Germany and Portugal in February, and the Council’s decision not to issue such a warning was considered a lost opportunity to enforce the Stability and Growth Pact as the existing procedure of fiscal co-ordination among European countries. 7 Conversely another bank argued “no warning, no problem,” since the two countries confirmed their commitment to their fiscal target.

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  • The compensation or return theoretically due to or actually gained by a country’s citizens when a country’s resources such as oil or forests are exploited for export has always depended on complex social institutions, property rights and power relations. In an era of increasing trade, investment and financial liberalisation, the relationship between the exploitation of resources and the accrual of benefits to poor citizens is even more difficult.

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  • The impact of collateral on credit risk is a subject that has raised a good deal of debate. From a theoretical perspective, there are two alternative interpretations that lead to different empirical predictions. On the one hand, the collateral pledged by borrowers may help attenuate the problem of adverse selection faced by the bank when lending [Stiglitz and Weiss (1981), Bester (1985), Chan and Kanatas (1985), Besanko and Thakor (1987a, b) and Chan and Thakor (1987)].

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  • In the United States, insurance regulators require bonds and preferred stocks to be reported in statutory financial statements in one of six National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) designations categories that denote credit quality. If an accepted rating organisation (ARO) has rated the security, the security is not required to be filed with the NAIC’s Securities Valuation Office (SVO). Rather, the ARO rating is used to map the security to one of the six NAIC designation categories.

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  • Bonds are securities that establish a creditor relationship between the purchaser (creditor) and the issuer (debtor). The issuer receives a certain amount of money in return for the bond, and is obligated to repay the principal at the end of the lifetime of the bond (maturity). Typically, bonds also require coupon or interest payments. Since all these payments are determined as part of the contracts, bonds are also called fixed income securities. A straight bond is one where the purchaser pays a fixed amount of money to buy the bond.

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  • From the early days of the Internet, when only e-mail servers were on the network, a hacker’s ultimate goal was to gain root access to the UNIX host that ran these applications. With root access, the hacker had full control of the system and could often collect enough information to gain access to the rest of the network and other partner networks. E-business application hosts have increased the number of targets for hackers.

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  • Data were extracted into separate databases for studies reporting on crops and livestock products (including meat, milk and eggs). Extracted data included all relevant information on study characteristics, methods and results. Data on factors outlined in the conceptual framework on nutrient variability (Figure 1) were also extracted when available. For the first 10 included articles, data extraction was performed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. Extracted data were compared and any inconsistencies noted and corrected as necessary.

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