Retrograde signaling

Xem 1-20 trên 39 kết quả Retrograde signaling
  • Fenton's Reagent requires soluble Fe2+ to form OH•. This optimal reaction occurs under relatively low pH conditions (e.g., pH of 2 to 4). pH adjustment in the treatment area is often necessary to enable the oxidation process to proceed efficiently. This can be accomplished by either acidifying the hydrogen peroxide or by adding a chelating acid. Using a ferrous sulfate solution `simultaneously adjusts aquifer pH and adds the iron catalyst needed for Fenton's Reagent.

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  • But up to now not only few but also rather inadequate empirical segmentation studies of these markets have been carri ed out and published. So, this book will present the results of a newer and better designed segmentation study of Chinese consumer goods markets. This study identifies and characterizes 12 market segments that are internally homogeneous and externally heterogeneous with regard to the product related needs and wants of their members. Moreover, it explains the possibilities of a segment specific tailoring of some other elements of the marketing mix.

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  • Here we study the architecture and characteristics of the broker network. We are using a particular internal structure for the events (defined in XML but currently implemented as a Java object). We assume a sophisticated matching of publishers and subscribers defined as general topic objects (defined by an XML Schema that we have designed). However these are not the central issues to be discussed here.

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  • Bond Funds, which account for €320.7 billion of shares/units in issue, and are therefore the largest fund category, experienced minor positive revaluations of €1.7 billion, but mostly benefitted from increased confidence in bonds by recording significant new investment of €12 billion, the highest relative inflow of any category. Hedge Funds, which account for €73.2 billion of shares/units in issue, also benefitted from positive revaluations and net inflows. Revaluations at €3 billion, or 4.

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  • Information about plant genetic diversity is necessary for the development of appropriate strategies in conservation biology as well as in many other applied fields. From a basic evolutionary standpoint, genetic diversity is assumed to be crucial for the evolutionary potential of a species. Research programs that aim to investigate population structure provide evolutionary insights into the demographic patterns of diverse organisms (Milligan et al., 1994).

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  • The unearned premium reserve may have multiple roles under a deferral-matching accounting system. It may be viewed as a reflection of the refund liability in the event of policy cancellation10 . It may also be viewed as a way of deferring revenue so that revenue timing matches expense. These two views may result in different values, such as when a penalty would be charged the policyholder for early policy cancellation, although in practice such differences are generally ignored.

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  • Restating and control firms appear very similar in the measurable degree of influence that the CEO exerts on the board. Panel D of Table 5 shows that the CEO chairs the board in about 64 percent (62 percent) of the restating (control) firms. The CEO’s median tenure on the board is 5 (7) years in restating (control) firms. The CEO belongs to the founding family in 26 percent (20 percent) of the firms in the two samples. The CEO appears to pick board members in 80 percent (82 percent) of the firms in the two groups. None of these differences are statistically significant....

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  • Tony Smith worked first as a toolmaker and draftsman while studying painting and drawing. After serving as clerk for Frank Lloyd Wright, he managed his own successful independent practice for almost two decades. By 1960, however, he turned to sculpture. Smith preferred mild steel to Cor-Ten steel. Mild steel accommodates itself more readily to welding, resulting in greater unity of the joining planes. Its less wavy texture makes it easier to manipulate into exactly level planes.

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  • In Peru, where the project is known as Iniciativa de La- vado de Manos, or the Handwashing Initiative (HWI), the specific target is to reach 5.1 million women and children under 12 with handwashing messages by the end of the four-year implementation period (November 2010). The ultimate goal is to have 1.3 million people practicing im- proved handwashing behaviors. As of the first half of 2010, the communication targets for reach by mass media had been significantly surpassed and for direct consumer con- tact (e.g., dramas, discussions, and health fairs) had almost been reached.

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  • Our economic outlook has changed little over the past two years. Following the severe recession ending 2009, we have worked with the expectation that the overall economy will follow a bumpy and slow path with a positive trend. The recent path has certainly been bumpy, but the positive trend holds true. Our current expectation is that this pattern will continue as the environment stabilizes. One of the most interesting suggestions might be the idea that US commercial real estate is inexpensive on a relative basis.

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  • The paper finds that the four major Australian banks have capital well about the regulatory requirements with high quality capital. While their headline capital ratios are below the global average for large banks in a sample of advanced and emerging market economies, Australia’s more conservative approach in implementing the Basel II framework implies that Australian banks’ headline capital ratios underestimate their capital strength. For example, a comparison with Canadian banks highlights the impact of Australia’s more conservative approach.

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  • This study focuses on incentives that target small-scale renewable energy technologies intended for on-site use in residential or small commercial applications. Solar and small wind were naturally the primary relevant technologies given this scope. For incentives that were available to owners of large- and small-scale systems, the discussion centers primarily on the impact of the incentive on smaller applications.

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  • Fiscal policy, based on cash-budgeting, aims over the medium term at preserving fiscal sustainability, while allowing for some modest increase in infrastructure and social spending. Given the fiscal framework, Government finances have improved. There are, however, unresolved issues concerning ghost workers and the accounting for diamond revenues. Total revenue increased from US$933.6 million in 2009 to US$2.34 billion in 2010, underpinned by increases in income and corporate taxes.

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  • Heterogeneity of information sources: Data may originate at a few authoritative sources, or alternatively, every participant might be allowed (or expected) to contribute data to the community. The level of heterogeneity of the data influences the degree to which a system can ensure uniform, global semantics for the data. A P2P system might impose a single schema on all participants to enforce uniform, global semantics, but for some applications this will be too restrictive.

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  • Several international organisations and large fi nancial institutions have developed fi nancing conditions indices (FCIs). 1 Isolating fi nancing conditions from monetary conditions is especially useful at the current juncture, which is characterised by low monetary policy rates but substantial stress in the fi nancial system. This box reviews briefl y the methodology used to construct such FCIs and looks at some results obtained for the euro area as a whole.

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  • The other extreme is “monetary dominance”. Central banks raise interest rates to avoid the inflationary effects of excessive budget deficits. Real interest rates rise across the maturity spectrum and the prospect of higher-and-higher debt service costs then forces governments to reduce their primary deficits. This seems to fit the UK story in the late 1980s and early 1990s when tighter macroeconomic policies (monetary and fiscal) brought down inflation.

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  • The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society.

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  • Using all of the above sources and extrapolating from current data coverage to a larger scale, a global DALY for the selected 49 low and middle-income countries was estimated for each of the top polluting industry sources and contaminants presented in this report. These DALY estimations are clearly limited in their accuracy by the data available. However, these ranges are becoming more accurate as better information is obtained from pollution sites all over the world.

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  • Damage costs to material and crops, cleaning costs due to soiling, and so on, although not easy to determine, can be estimated as a function of pollutant levels (Rid- ker, 1967). However, there is the problem of translating into monetary value the effects on health resulting from air pollution.

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  • As the Internet grows and routing complexity increases, network-level instabilities are becoming more and more common. End-to-end communications are especially susceptible to service disruptions, while diagnosing and mitigating these disruptions are extremely challenging. In this dissertation, we design and build systems for diagnosing routing anomalies and improving robustness of end-to-end communications. The rst piece of this work describes PlanetSeer, a novel distributed system for diagnosing routing anomalies.

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