Reverse innovation

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  • A reverse innovation or trickle-up innovation is a term referring to an innovation which is likely to be adopted first in the developing world. Reverse innovation is required to be decentralized and focus to local-market. Innovation still originated with home-country needs, but products and services were later modified to win in each market. To meet the budgets of customers in poor countries, they sometimes de-featured existing products.

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  • As a result of the gloomy economic climate in Europe brought about by the ongoing crisis affecting all enterprises (particularly SMEs) in France, the French government has recently decided to create different poles of innovation and research associated to the activities of enterprises. The objective is to propose new ideas for helping these enterprises to be more efficient and able to resist the threat to their existence from globalisation. One of the difficulties of these enterprises is that they find it difficult to penetrate the European market and export their products.

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  • The objective of this phase is to produce one or more alternatives to the current situation, which satisfy the strategic goals of the enterprise. The first step in this phase is benchmarking. “Benchmarking is the comparing of both the performance of the organization’s processes and the way those processes are conducted with those relevant peer organizations to obtain ideas for improvement[7].” The peer organizations need not be competitors or even from the same industry. Innovative practices can be adopted from anywhere, no matter what their source.

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  • This book presents a unique and innovative effort to examine what we know about homosexual transmission of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. It reverses the trend whereby categories of same sex sexual practice are almost always excluded from research of HIV and AIDS, as well as from

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  • The different challenges should be organized in a logical order as some tasks are interlinked and cannot be started without achievement of previous results. In most cases, a challenge implies a logical set of tasks to be realized in the field of activity, following the steps A-B-C-D. The most difficult step in the realization of any challenge is the connection between activity B and C.

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  • This study aims to do the following: (1) assess the influence of various draw solute concentrations on FO system; (2) evaluate the efficiency of the application of NaCl mixed with EDTA-2Na as draw solute in FO/MD for desalinating brackish water; and (3) investigate the water quality from the permeate stream of an MD system.

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