Rf transmission lines

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  • Review of Waves and Transmission Lines At low RF, a wire or a line on a printed circuit board can be used to connect two electronic components. At higher frequencies, the current tends to concentrate on the surface of the wire due to the skin effect.

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  • Transmission lines are needed for connecting various circuit elements and systems together. Open-wire and coaxial lines are commonly used for circuits operating at low frequencies. On the other hand, coaxial line, stripline, microstrip line, and waveguides are employed at radio and microwave frequencies. Generally, the lowfrequency signal characteristics are not affected as it propagates through the line. However, radio frequency and microwave signals are affected signi®cantly because of the circuit size being comparable to the wavelength...

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  • Various Components and Their System Parameters An RF and microwave system consists of many different components connected by transmission lines. In general, the components are classified as passive components and active (or solid-state) components. The passive components include resistors, capacitors, inductors, connectors, transitions, transformers, tapers, tuners, matching networks, couplers, hybrids, power dividers=combiners, baluns, resonators, filters, multiplexers, isolators, circulators, delay lines, and antennas. ...

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  • The passive components used in electronic circuits all make use of one or more of the three fundamental phenomena of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Some components depend for their operation on the interaction between one of these electrical properties and a mechanical property, e.g. crystals used as frequency standards, piezo-electric sounders, etc. The following sections look at components particularly in the light of their suitability for use at RFs, and at how they can be inter-connected for various purposes....

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  • IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMERS In the preceding chapter, several techniques were considered to match a given load impedance at a ®xed frequency. These techniques included transmission line stubs as well as lumped elements. Note that lumped-element circuits may not be practical at higher frequencies. Further, it may be necessary in certain cases to keep the re¯ection coef®cient below a speci®ed value over a given frequency band. This chapter presents transmission line impedance transformers that can meet such requirements....

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  • Advanced RF/Microwave Filters There have been increasing demands for advanced RF/microwave filters other than conventional Chebyshev filters in order to meet stringent requirements from RF/microwave systems, particularly from wireless communications systems. In this chapter, we will discuss the designs of some advanced filters.

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  • Transmission Lines and Components In this chapter, basic concepts and design equations for microstrip lines, coupled microstrip lines, discontinuities, and components useful for design of filters are briefly described. Though comprehensive treatments of these topics can be found in the open literature, they are summarized here for easy reference.

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  • Temperature measurement and control are vital in many industrial processes. Accurate control of the temperature is essential in nearly all chemical processes. In some applications, an accuracy of around 5-10~ may be acceptable. There are also some industrial applications which require better than 4-1 ~ accuracy.

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  • Electromechanical mobility analogies [42] Mechanical parameter Electrical parameter Voltage Current Conductance Inductance Capacitance Inductance per unit length Capacitance per unit length Characteristic impedance Impedance Admittance Short circuit Open circuit Current Voltage Variable Lumped network elements Transmission lines Immitances Source immitances Velocity, angular velocity Force, torque Damping Compliance Mass, mass moment of inertia Compliance per unit length Mass per unit length Characteristic mobility Mobility Impedance Clamped point Free point Force Velocity ABCD matrix...

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  • I enjoyed reading this book for a number of reasons. One reason is that it addresses high-speed analog design in the context of microwave issues. This is an advanced level book, which should follow courses in basic circuits and transmission lines. Most analog integrated circuit designers in the past worked on applications at a low enough frequency that microwave issues did not arise. As a consequence, they were adept at lumped parameter circuits and often not comfortable with circuits where waves travel in space.

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  • ADC’s HDSL2/4 line cards provide visibility of faulty or missing remote chassis frame ground connections on a real-time basis. A remote unit not connected to frame ground is susceptible to poor performance and possible damage to HDSL and other transmission equipment. This has become an increasingly critical factor in the delivery of T1 service to cell sites. Cell sites are particularly vulnerable to power surges, induction and changes in ground potential caused by RF transmission equipment and lightning strikes.

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