Scaling ratio

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  • Beyond TMT, we find no systematic increase in the importance of industry effects. Instead, we observe that the ratio of industry to country effects follows a U-shape pattern from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s, a cyclical pattern whereby global industry effects become temporarily more important in relative and absolute terms around periods of stock market distress, such as October 1987 and March 2000. We view this cyclical pattern as further evidence that the recent increase in industry effects is temporary....

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  • In this study, nano crystalline zinc hydroxide nitrate powder was synthesized by a sol – gel method using NaOH and Zn(NO3)2.6 H2O as precursors, yielding several grams products per batch. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and BET, indicating the initial molar ratio NaOH : Zn(NO3)2.6H2O = 1.6 and reaction time 1 hour as suitable.

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  • The projects that motivated initial development of many of the ideas in this book were primarily large engineering projects in the energy sector: large-scale Arctic pipelines in the far north of North America in the mid-1970s, BP’s North Sea projects from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, and a range of Canadian and US energy projects in the early 1980s. In this period the initial focus was ‘the project’ in engineering and ...

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  • Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis

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  • Currently, the development of products at the nano- and microscale is being driven by economic necessity in highly developed countries in order to improve the quality of life, and in recent years to prevent the spread of global terrorism. Nanotechnology is seen as the next step in the industrial revolution and, as such, requires manufacturing processes that will revolutionize the way small products are made. The promises offered by nanotechnology will change the way we exist.

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  • Temperature Measurement of Fluids Low Velocity Gas Contact sensors Assume that a gas, with a temperature, T., flows in a tube with a flow-velocity below about 20 m/s, as shown in Figure 17.1(a) . In the tube there is a sheathed sensor, whose sensitive part, at temperature, TT , is placed in the sheath bottom. This case corresponds to a thermocouple with the measuring junction welded into the sheath bottom . Also let the temperature ofthe internal surface ofthe tube wall be TW , while the length to diameter ratio of the sensor sheath is assumed to be so large that...

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  • Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis for supplementation and further development.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Ratio-Dependent Three-Species Predator-Prey Diffusion System on Time Scales

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  • Virtually every branch of the sciences, engineering, economics, and related fields now discusses or refers to chaos. James Gleick's 1987 book, Chaos: making a new science and a 1988 one-hour television program on chaos aroused many people's curiosity and interest. There are now quite a few books on the subject. Anyone writing yet another book, on any topic, inevitably goes through the routine of justifying it. My justification consists of two reasons

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  • The system-to-administrator ratio is commonly used as a rough metric to understand administrative costs in high-scale services. With smaller, less automated services this ratio can be as low as 2:1, whereas on industry leading, highly automated services, we’ve seen ratios as high as 2,500:1. Within Microsoft services, Autopilot [1] is often cited as the magic behind the success of the Windows Live Search team in achieving high system-to-administrator ratios. While auto-administration is important, the most important factor is actually the service itself.

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  • In this chapter, we will examine the P/E and other ratios that scale a firm’s market valuation to a measure of firm value. These ratios will be used to determine the relative valuation of a common share. They are widely used in practice because in a single number, they provide the firm’s market valuation relative to some firm fundamental.

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  • Thang đo trong nghiên cứu: Có bốn loại thang đo chính thức được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu tiếp thị: (1) Thang đo định danh (norminal scale) (2) Thang đo thứ tự (ordinal scale) (3) Thang đo quãng/khỏang cách (interval scale) (4) Thang đo tỉ lệ (ratio scale). Thang đo định danh và thang đo thứ tự được gọi là thang đo không metric hay thang đo định tính (qualitative scale); Thang đo tỉ lệ và khoảng cách được gọi là thang đo metric hay thang đo định lượng (quantitative scale). ...

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  • This could be fortuitous at modest scales because oxygen is relatively costly (Consonni and Larson 1994a). However, for the production of methanol from biomass, the use of air increases the volume of inert (N 2 ) gas that would have to be carried through all the downstream reactors. Therefore, the use of oxygen thus improves the economics of synthesis gas processing. Air-fired, directly heated gasifiers are considered not to be suitable before methanol production. This gasifier produces a CO 2 rich gas.

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  • Parametric correlation requires two continuous variables measured on an interval or ratio scale. The coefficient does not distinguish between independent and dependent variables

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  • Benefit-cost ratios of intervention to control or prevent air pollution from household SFU will depend on what benefits and costs are included in the analysis and how non-market benefits and costs are valued. Health effects of air pollution are often a major concern and motivation for intervention. Which health effects to include and how they are valued are therefore an important consideration in an economic analysis. Large scale household stove programs have also been motivated by natural resource considerations, for instance in China in the 1980s.

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  • Fresh tea shoots (one shoot and two or three young leaves) were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE). Several factors such as ethanol concentrations (0-99.5o (volume percentage)), material: solvent ratio (1:4 to 1:12), extraction time, oven power were studied to optimise conditions at laboratory scale.

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  • With respect to equity mutual funds, the study further notes that funds are experiencing diseconomies of scale in their expense ratios when their size exceeds $600 million to $800 million. Interestingly, the foregoing study does not even address the problem of "market impact costs" which are clearly an even greater expense to mutual funds than are the more visible costs used in the calculation of their...

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  • We present an analysis of bounded-energy low-tension maps between 2-spheres. By deriving sharp estimates for the ratio of length scales on which bubbles of opposite orientation develop, we show that we can establish a ‘quantization estimate’ which constrains the energy of the map to lie near to a discrete energy spectrum. One application is to the asymptotics of the harmonic map flow; we find uniform exponential convergence in time, in the case under consideration.

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  • This paper develops theory missing in the sizeable literature that uses data envelopment analysis to construct return : risk ratios for investment funds. It explores the production possibility set of the investment funds to identify an appropriate form of returns to scale. It discusses what risk and return measures can justifiably be combined and how to deal with negative risks, and identifies suitable sets of measures. It identifies the problems of failing to deal with diversification and develops an iterative approximation procedure to deal with it.

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  • This analysis represents the scale of potential impacts on the economy and not benefit/cost ratios. Specifically, economic impact studies do not account for some of the social and environmental impacts that are included in benefit/cost studies, though they do account for indirect and induced economic growth that is typically not included in benefit/cost studies. The social and environmental impacts that are not counted within the GDP impact measure include, most notably, personal time savings and emissions impacts.

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