Schistosomiasis vaccine

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  • Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease caused by platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma, notably Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum. Pioneer researchers used radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome larvae to immunize laboratory rodent and non-human primate hosts. Significant and reproducible reduction in challenge worm burden varying from 30% to 90% was achieved, providing a sound proof that vaccination against this infection is feasible.

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  • Uric acid is synthesized mainly in the liver, intestines and the vascular endothelium as the end product of an exogenous pool of purines, and endogenously from damaged, dying and dead cells, whereby nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are degraded into uric acid. Mentioning uric acid generates dread because it is the established etiological agent of the severe, acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis, gout and is implicated in the initiation and progress of the metabolic syndrome.

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  • Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. c the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection.

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  • Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world. Despite integrated control measures, schistosomiasis continues to spread to new regions. So, there is a pressing need to identify new antigens and to explore new adjuvants to improve vaccine efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) combined with S. mansoni SEA and SWAP antigens as vaccination in mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. The study was carried out on 70 laboratory bred Swiss albino male mice.

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  • Reports on schistosomiasis epidemiology and clinical features in Africa and Brazil, and development of novel drugs that affect the worm tegument, and vaccine based on excretory-secretory products and Type 2 cytokines.

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  • Papain, an experimental model protease, was used to decipher the protective mechanism(s) of the cysteine peptidase-based schistosomiasis vaccine. To examine the role of T lymphocytes, athymic nude (nu/nu) and immunocompetent haired (nu/+) mice were subcutaneously (sc) injected with 50 mg active papain two days before percutaneous exposure to 100 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Highly significant (P < 0.005) reductions in worm burden required competent T lymphocytes, while significant increases (P < 0.

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  • Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, and a significant cause of morbidity; it is a priority for vaccine development. A controlled human infection model for Schistosoma mansoni (CHI-S) with potential to accelerate vaccine development has been developed among naïve volunteers in the Netherlands. Because responses both to infections and candidate vaccines are likely to differ between endemic and non-endemic settings, we propose to establish a CHI-S in Uganda where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

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