Soil fungi

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  • Baking Soda: Sodium bicarbonate is a product that can be used as a natural fungicide for black spot, powdery mildew and brown patch by mixing 4 teaspoons (approximately 1 rounded tablespoon) per gallon of water along with one teaspoon of mild liquid soap or horticultural oil and spraying foliage. Be careful to keep the spray on the foliage and not on the soil as much as possible. Baking soda is composed of sodium and bicarbonate ñ both are necessary in the soil but only in very small amounts. Potassium bicarbonate is a good alternative for those concerned about sodium....

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  • Based on morphology, there are 119 types of AMF spore in both coffee farms and most of them belongs to genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Entrophospora and Glomus. Spore types RE7, W6 and W1 belonged to Acaulospora and Y5 belonged to Entrophospora appeared in both farms. Besides, spore types B7, RE10, Yc, RE1 and Y1 were recorded in high density (1- 4 spores /g soil). All of them were the potential strains for developing the VAM fertilizer specialized to coffee plantation.

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  • A field experiment was conducted during 2009–2011 at the University Agricultural Research Farm to evaluate the efficacious nature of some botanicals such as Argemone mexicana, Calotropis procera, Solanum xanthocarpum and Eichhornia echinulata in combination with normal as well as deep ploughing against plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-inhabiting fungi infesting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar.

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  • Seventy soil samples were collected from 25 different plant varieties grown in fields in Aydın province. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were found in 59 soil samples; 58 of these were identified as Glomus sp. and 1 as Gigaspora sp. Due to its adaptation characteristics, growth rates, and colonization properties, Glomus sp. was selected for further study.

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  • The number of spores of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi occurring in the rhizospheric soil of 14 crops was investigated using traditional wet-sieving/decanting methods. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of some agronomy species (Gramineae, Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Umbellifera, and Alliaceae) on VAM spores numbers in the rhizosphere.

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  • Mixed microbial cultures were obtained by enrichment from soil samples collected from the Gediz basin. A number of species of bacteria and fungi were isolated and partially characterized from enrichment clutures containing the fungicide thiram.

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  • Concentrations of three aluminium compounds significantly affected the mycelial extension of Trichoderma viride with low pH values growing on agar media, and the largest effect was recorded with aluminium chloride. Experiments in this work showed that there were significant relationships between Al concentration and pH in the Al inhibition of fungal activity on agar media.

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  • This book consists of eight chapters, which are broadly divided into two themes. The first five chapters examine design features and management practices of selected agroforestry practices, and their effects on ecosystem functions and productivity. In the first Chapter, Rodríguez-Estéz et al. provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on the ecology of the dehesa, a Mediterranean agrosilvopastoral system, and how the Iberian pig production system enhances biodiversity and ecosystem services....

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  • Next, we examine predictability in both benchmark returns and fund risk loadings. Consider the dogmatist who believes in such a predictability structure (PD-2). This investor would experience a nontrivial utility loss of 15.1 basis points per month (1.8%/ year) in December 2002 if forced to hold the optimal portfolio of the ND. The utility loss is even larger over the course of all 276 monthly investments. This loss averages 21.1 (39) basis points per month over expansions (recessions).

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  • The fiscal year (FY) 2011 Financial Report of the United States Government (Report) provides the President, Congress, and the American people with a comprehensive view of the Federal Government’s finances, i.e., its financial position and condition, its revenues and costs, assets and liabilities, and other obligations and commitments. The Report also discusses important financial issues and significant conditions that may affect future operations.

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  • Plants are preyed on by insects and fungi; and they are subject to various kinds of disease that, for the most part, are not yet understood. They are often injured also by mice and rabbits (p. 144), by moles, dogs, cats, and chickens; and fruit is eaten by birds. Moles may be troublesome on sandy land; they heave the ground by their burrowing and may often be killed by stamping when the burrow is being raised; there are mole traps that are more or less successful. Dogs and cats work injury mostly by walking across newly made gardens or...

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  • While the above-described uses (and potential uses) of social media by insurance companies are important to note, it must be pointed out there is another side of the proverbial coin to social media in insurance. A not-insignificant number of insurance companies — concerned about the novelty of the medium, the lack of explicit regulatory and legal guidance, and very real practical and technical issues — have either banned the use of social media outright or taken an approach of benign disregard relative to the use of social media in connection with their...

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  • In determining what a normal production level is for an insurable farmer, USDA requires the producer to present actual annual crop yields (usually stated on a bushel-per-acre basis) for the last 4 to 10 years. The simple average of a producer’s annual crop yield over this time period then serves as the producer’s actual production history (APH). If a farmer does not have adequate records, he can be assigned a transition yield (T-yield) for each missing year of data, which is based on average county yields for the crop.

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  • The engineering profession must adapt to the new low carbon paradigm well ahead of society as a whole in order to provide the necessary leadership in design and the direction of policy. The professional engineering institutions and trade associations must all recognise a multi-disciplinary, problem solving approach that over-turns conventional partisan relationships and embraces a systemic approach to construction. All contributors to construction projects must be prepared to provide leadership in their area of expertise, but work with others to link knowledge across existing boundaries.

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  • Hospitals, hit hard by the Great Depression, rushed to embrace plans for prepaid health care as a way to survive. In 1939 the American Hospital Association began allowing plans that met its standards to use the Blue Cross name and logo. State legislatures agreed not to treat Blue Cross plans as insurance, based on the rationale that they were owned by hospitals. This permitted Blue Cross plans to operate as non-profit corporations, escaping the 2% to 3% premiums generally charged private insurance companies, and exempted them from insurance company reserve requirements.

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  • In the future, the housing sector is expected to continue growing steadily. Recently, legislation has been introduced in the Mexican Senate that calls for amending Article 27 of the Federal Constitution to allow direct ownership of residential real property by foreigners within the Prohibited Zone without having to employ a fideicomiso.

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  • Diversification of the portfolio can only reduce the so-called non-systematic risk, however. The systematic risk, i.e. the interdependence of returns on changes in the overall market and/or shocks cannot be eliminated. For instance, the returns on equities and investments in specific real assets are necessarily positively correlated by the underlying economic determinants. The return on an invest- ment in equities depends e.g. on company profits and therefore also on growth.

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  • Unsafe abortions contribute to 13 percent of maternal deaths, about 68,000 per year. Abortion-related complications contribute to a relatively large share of maternal deaths in Latin America and the Caribbean (where legal restrictions on abortion are common) and to a lesser degree in Asia and Africa. The case fatality rate for abortions, however, is highest in Africa. Increases in the proportion of births assisted by a skilled birth attendant have been dramatic in Southern Asia, Eastern Asia and the Pacific and (from higher initial levels) in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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  • Moral judgment, or capacity to judge which alternatives are ethically acceptable and which are not and to determine the uprightness of the intention. Good behavior requires deliberation and deciding to carry out an action. Making sound moral judgments is previous to making a good decision. In this deliberation, practical wisdom plays a crucial role. It fosters upright moral reasoning by taking into account universal principles and the pertinent circumstances of each situation.

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  • The cross-industry Self-Regulatory Program for Online Behavioral Advertising was developed by leading industry associations to apply consumer-friendly standards to online behavioral advertising across the Internet. Online behavioral advertising increasingly supports the convenient access to content, services, and applications over the Internet that consumers have come to expect at no cost to them. The Self-Regulatory Program consists of seven Principles.

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