Structural disorders

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  • With this first edition of Migraine and Other Headache Disorders, we celebrate the remarkable progress in the art and science of headache during the last decade. With 32 chapters by 54 leaders in the field, the book provides health care professionals with practical approaches to patient care and reviews the scientific foundations of headache. We emphasize migraine because of its high prevalence, enormous burden, and the increasing availability of effective management strategies. At the same time, we provide broad coverage of all the primary headache disorders.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 99. Disorders of Hemoglobin Disorders of Hemoglobin: Introduction Hemoglobin is critical for normal oxygen delivery to tissues; it is also present in erythrocytes in such high concentrations that it can alter red cell shape, deformability, and viscosity. Hemoglobinopathies are disorders affecting the structure, function, or production of hemoglobin. These conditions are usually inherited and range in severity from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to death in utero.

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  • Heavy Chain Diseases The heavy chain diseases are rare lymphoplasmacytic malignancies. Their clinical manifestations vary with the heavy chain isotype. Patients secrete a defective heavy chain that usually has an intact Fc fragment and a deletion in the Fd region. Gamma, alpha, and mu heavy chain diseases have been described, but no reports of delta or epsilon heavy chain diseases have appeared. Molecular biologic analysis of these tumors has revealed structural genetic defects that may account for the aberrant chain secreted.

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  • Endophthalmitis This occurs from bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infection of the internal structures of the eye. It is usually acquired by hematogenous seeding from a remote site. Chronically ill, diabetic, or immunosuppressed patients, especially those with a history of indwelling IV catheters or positive blood cultures, are at greatest risk for endogenous endophthalmitis. Although most patients have ocular pain and injection, visual loss is sometimes the only symptom.

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  • Senescence is a biological process that causes a progressive deterioration of structure and function of all organs chronologically. Recent studies have revealed the detailed molecular mechanisms of senescence using cell culture system and experimental organisms. It is thought that senescence is a potential cause for the development of various age-related disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • Ear anatomy. A. Drawing of modified coronal section through external ear and temporal bone, with structures of the middle and inner ear demonstrated. B. High-resolution view of inner ear. Stereocilia of the hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar membrane, are in contact with the tectorial membrane and are deformed by the traveling wave. A point of maximal displacement of the basilar membrane is determined by the frequency of the stimulating tone. High-frequency tones cause maximal displacement of the basilar membrane near the base of the cochlea.

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  • Classes There are five major classes of hemoglobinopathies (Table 99-1). Structural hemoglobinopathies occur when mutations alter the amino acid sequence of a globin chain, altering the physiologic properties of the variant hemoglobins and producing the characteristic clinical abnormalities. The most clinically relevant variant hemoglobins polymerize abnormally, as in sickle cell anemia, or exhibit altered solubility or oxygen-binding affinity. Thalassemia syndromes arise from mutations that impair production or translation of globin mRNA, leading to deficient globin chain biosynthesis.

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  • This study contains two objectives. The Örst is the identiÖcation of the public perception of monetary policy to establish a relationship between this perception, the behaviour of monetary authorities and some key economic variables. The second objective is the identiÖcation of the relationship between monetary policy and the term structure of interest rates. In particular, we are interested by the link with long-term interest rates. From this perspective, the works of Kozicki and Tinsley (1998, 2001a, 2001b) are interesting for two reasons.

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  • Insomnia Associated with Neurologic Disorders A variety of neurologic diseases result in sleep disruption through both indirect, nonspecific mechanisms (e.g., pain in cervical spondylosis or low back pain) or by impairment of central neural structures involved in the generation and control of sleep itself. For example, dementia from any cause has long been associated with disturbances in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, often characterized by nocturnal wandering and an exacerbation of symptomatology at night (so-called sundowning).

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  • The NS2B–NS3 protease complex is essential for the replication of dengue virus, which is the etiologic agent of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, dis-eases that are a burden for the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The active form of the NS3 protease linked to the 40 residues of the NS2B cofactor shows highly flexible and disordered region(s)...

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  • The S100 proteins are 10–12 kDa EF-hand proteins that act as central reg-ulators in a multitude of cellular processes including cell survival, prolifera-tion, differentiation and motility. Consequently, many S100 proteins are implicated and display marked changes in their expression levels in many types of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory and autoim-mune diseases.

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  • Proteins are occasionally converted from their normal soluble state to highly ordered fibrillar aggregates (amyloids), which give rise to pathologi-cal conditions that range from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. Recent methodological advances in solid-state NMR and EPR spectroscopy have enabled determination of the 3D structure of sev-eral amyloids at residue-level resolution.

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  • The CII protein of bacteriophagek, which activates the synthesis of thekrepressor, plays a key role in the lysis– lysogeny switch. CII has a small in vivo half-life due to its proteolytic susceptibility, and this instability is a key com-ponent for its regulatory role. The structural basis of this instability is not known. While studying guanidine hydro-chloride-assisted unfolding of CII, we found that low concentrations of the chaotrope (50–500 mM) have a con-siderable effect on the structure of this protein.

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  • part 1 book “handbook of personality disorders” has contents: conceptual issues, theoretical versus inductive approaches to contemporary personality pathology, official classification systems , dimensional approaches to personality disorder classification, cultural aspects of personality disorder, cognitive structures and processes in personality disorders,… and other contents.

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  • Low Fe-doped insulating ferromagnets La2CoMnO6 were prepared and studied. The compounds crystallized in orthorhombic space group Pnma with slight changes in the lattice constants. We have observed a significant reduction of resistivity due to doping, together with an increase of magnetization and saturated magnetization as doping level increased. The doping also reduced TC for both transitions at around 220 and 140 K which attribute for the different spin orderings of the magnetic ions.

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  • The present book, Differential Diagnosis in Internal Medicine, first appeared as a German edition in 1952 and since then has been translated into 10 other languages. Over the past 50 years 19 German editions have been published, and now the 19th edition of the work, which has become the classic differential diagnosis textbook, is available in English for the first time. This book encompasses differential diagnosis across the spectrum of internal medicine, covering dermatology, neurology, and rheumatology, and provides the very latest knowledge including pathophysiological aspects.

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  • Nature creates the best ingredients and combining them is a mixture materials. So, get inspiration for new designs of their intended use. We make new construction, the new artificial materials and evaluate them before use. Composites are formed from components with high-tech materials potential. This potential is wide is wide variation of materials and structures construction when new updates are invented every day.

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  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra. This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical conditions.

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  • Advanced Topics in Biomineralization is a compendium of current topics focusing on processes of formation, organization, as well as mineralization of novel structural materials. From enchondral ossification to the application of biomineralized cement, the subject of biomineralization encompasses a range of diverse disciplines including molecular biology, supramolecular chemistry, materials science and engineering. A common theme in all these areas of research in biomineralization is the ability to utilize strategies from Nature to create functional materials.

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  • Of the four heart valves, the mitral valve is the only valve that has a distinguishable annulus. However, the presence of a fibrous annular structure is variable and discontinuous. The firmest site of support for the mitral valve is the region of fibrous continuity between the aortic and mitral valves, the extent of which is delineated by the right and left fibrous trigones (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, for surgical purposes, the annulus is considered the area of attachment of the valve leaflets to the atrial muscle. The annulus is a functional component of the mitral valve.

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