Symbolic representation

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  • This book is published in print and online through the online OAPEN library ( OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks) is a collaborative initiative to develop and implement a sustainable Open Access publication model for academic books in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The OAPEN Library aims to improve the visibility and usability of high quality academic research by aggregating peer reviewed Open Access publications from across Europe.

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  • We describe a formal framework for interpretation of words and compounds in a discourse context which integrates a symbolic lexicon/grammar, word-sense probabilities, and a pragmatic component. The approach is motivated by the need to handle productive word use. In this paper, we concentrate on compound nominals. We discuss the inadequacies of approaches which consider compound interpretation as either wholly lexico-grammatical or wholly pragmatic, and provide an alternative integrated account. ...

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  • Landscapes of a New Cultural Economy of Space is the fifth volume of the series. Focusing on the transformations and changes in human life that influence landscape development, the book presents ‘landscape’ as the interface of human-environment interrelationships where the different processes of change are perceived and expressed. Theano Terkenli and Anne-Marie d’Hauteserre use this approach as a way to introduce a collection of contemporary discussions in landscape research and geography which look specifically at the cultural transformation and representation of landscapes.

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  • Connecting: The learning activities are designed to allow students of all ability levels to connect new mathematical ideas to what they already understand. The learning activity descriptions provide guidance to teachers on ways to help students make connections among concrete, pictorial, and symbolic mathematical representations. Advice on helping students connect procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding is also provided. The problem-solving experiences in many of the learning activities allow students to connect mathematics to real-life situations and meaningful contexts....

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  • This paper presents a connectionist syntactic parser which uses Structure Unification Grammar as its grammatical framework. The parser is implemented in a connectionist architecture which stores and dynamically manipulates symbolic representations, but which can't represent arbitrary disjunction and has bounded memory. These problems can be overcome with Structure Unification Grammar's extensive use of partial descriptions.

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  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann's brilliant study of modern social theory is concerned with the ways in which social realities can be represented, and in particular with the possible means of representing 'modernity'. More specifically still, she wants to understand the aesthetic systems of modernity. Representation concerns the multiple ways in which realities can be encoded in a system of signs, typically through what we regard as art, religion and language, that is through symbolic orders. Aesthetics is narrowly defined as the philosophy of art, or more broadly as a theory of beauty.

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  • In popular discourse, academic research and trade association awareness campaigns, the consumer of counterfeit goods is frequently constructed as ‘other’. vi In industry and policy they are represented as outside accepted everyday experience either as part of a criminal or technological underworld, terrorist organisation, or as socially isolated, morally corrupt or part of a subversive subculture.

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  • The paradox of phallocentrism in aIl its manifestations is that it depends on the image of the castrated woman to give order and meaning to its world. An idea of woman stands as lynch pin to the system: it is her lack that produces the phallus as a symbolic presence, it is her desire to make good the lack that the phallus signifies. Recent writing in Screen about psychoanalysis and the cinema has not sufficiently brought out the importance of the representation of the female form in a symbolic order in which, in the last resort, it speaks castration...

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  • Vector notation and vector addition Graphical: a scalar multiplies an arrow. Indicate a vector’s direction by drawing an arrow with direction indicated by marked angles or slopes. The scalar multiple with a nearby scalar symbol, say F, as shown in figure 2.8b. This means F times a unit vector in the direction of the arrow. (Because F might be negative, sign confusion is common amongst beginners. Please see sample 2.1.) Combined: graphical representation used to define a symbolic vector.

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  • Language allows the communication and elaboration of thoughts and experiences by linking them to arbitrary symbols known as words. The neural substrate of language is composed of a distributed network centered in the perisylvian region of the left hemisphere. The posterior pole of this network is located at the temporoparietal junction and includes a region known as Wernicke's area. An essential function of Wernicke's area is to transform sensory inputs into their lexical representations so that these can establish the distributed associations that give the word its meaning. ...

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  • One area in which artificial neural networks (ANNs) may strengthen NLP systems is in the identification of words under noisy conditions. In order to achieve this benefit when spelling errors or spelling variants are present, variable-length strings of symbols must be converted to ANN input/output form--fixed-length arrays of numbers. A common view in the neural network community has been that different forms of input/output representations have negligible effect on ANN performance.

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  • Morphemes are the minimal meaning units of language, i.e. the smallest units in the expression system w h i c h can be correlated with any part of the content system, e.g. un+tir+ing+ly. URs are abstract entities . REPRESENTATION In G e n e r a t i v e Phonology sounds are r e p r e s e n t e d as matrices of feature specifications, the phonetic symbols shorthand for these matrices.

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  • The LOGON MT demonstrator assembles independently valuable general-purpose NLP components into a machine translation pipeline that capitalizes on output quality. The demonstrator embodies an interesting combination of hand-built, symbolic resources and stochastic processes. h1 , { h1 :proposition m(h3 ), h4 :proper q(x5 , h6 , h7 ), h8 :named(x5,‘Bodø’), h9 : populate v(e2 , , x5 ), h9 : densely r(e2 ) }, { h 3 =q h9 , h6 =q h8 } Figure 1: Simplified MRS representation for the utterance ‘Bodø is densely populated.

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  • Data compression presents Data in memory have used fixed length for representation, For data transfer (in particular), this method is inefficient; For speed and storage efficiencies, data symbols should use the minimum number of bits possible for representation.

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