Symbolic techniques

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  • As digital libraries and the World Wide Web (WWW) continue to grow exponentially, the ability to find useful information will greatly depend on the associated underlying framework of the indexing infrastructure or search engine. The push to get information on-line must be mediated by the design of automated techniques for extracting that information for a variety of users and needs. What algorithms and software environments are plausible for achieving both accuracy and speed in text searching today?...

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  • An open problem in dependency parsing is the accurate and efficient treatment of non-projective structures. We propose to attack this problem using chart-parsing algorithms developed for mildly contextsensitive grammar formalisms. In this paper, we provide two key tools for this approach. First, we show how to reduce nonprojective dependency parsing to parsing with Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS), by presenting a technique for extracting LCFRS from dependency treebanks.

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  • This book packages W3Schools content in an attractive two-color design that gets beginning Web developers and designers up and running with the core Web development technologies. To-the-point tutorials with clear examples and simple explanations give novices the knowledge they need to get going with confidence.

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  • Evaluating the average probability of symbol error for different bandpass modulation schemes Comparing different modulation schemes based on their error performances. Channel coding: Transforming signals to improve communications performance by increasing the robustness against channel impairments (noise, interference, fading, ..) Waveform coding: Transforming waveforms to better waveforms Structured sequences: Transforming data sequences into better sequences, having structured redundancy. “Better” in the sense of making the decision process less subject to errors....

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  • The invariable motif for analog design is to explore the new circuit topologies, architectures and CAD technologies to overcome the design challenges coming from the new applications and new fabrication technologies. In this book, a new architecture for a SAR ADC is proposed to eliminate the process mismatches and minimize the errors.

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  • This section illustrates some general concepts of artificial neural networks, their properties, mode of training, static training (feedforward) and dynamic training (recurrent), training data classification, supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised training. Prof. Belic Igor’s chapter that deals with ANN application in modeling, illustrating two properties of ANN: universality and optimization. Prof.

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  • Multi-carrier modulation, in particular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communications applications over the past several years. Although OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a diversity of important systems, the theory, algorithms, and implementation techniques remain subjects of current interest. This is clear from the high volume of papers appearing in technical journals and conferences.

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  • Within a sketch you can create 2D-wireframe geometry which can be used to produce Solids or surfaces and is represented by a solid line font. 2D-construction wireframe geometry can also be created which is used as an aid to produce the solid 2Dwireframe geometry. To position and control the size of the sketch, geometric and positional constraints are used which are displayed in green. A Sketch Node will be attached to the Specification Tree in which the Sketch Axis, Geometry and Constraints details are held.

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  • Marketers have identified urban, low-income African-American and Latino youth as “superconsumers” of soda, candy, and snack products. Many young people report frequent snacking, unstructured meals, and eating “junk food,” such as candy, chips, and soda, for their primary meal. Recent research studying the amount and type of advertising on prime-time television programs oriented to African-American audiences compared to those for general audiences found that far more food commercials appear on shows with large...

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  • Model in general sense is an analogue of the object under consideration, which replaces this object in human cognition. If the replacement action happens consciously, we call it Modelling. Science works by building models. Not cardboard or plasticine models, but models made out of symbols, special terms, theories, axioms, theorems etc. This helps to formulate ideas and identify underlying assumptions in formalized and abstracted form.

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  • Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is becoming the chosen modulation technique for wireless communications. OFDM can provide large data rates with sufficient robustness to radio channel impairments. Many research centers in the world have specialized teams working in the optimization of OFDM for countless applications. Here, at the Georgia Institute of Technology, one of such teams is in Dr. M. A. Ingram’s Smart Antenna Research Laboratory (SARL), a part of the Georgia Center for Advanced Telecommunications Technology (GCATT).

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  • Cross drawings are as old as time. They have been around even before Christ and Christianity. The cross symbolizes life, immortality,union of the heavens and earth and the sun and stars. It's no wonder so many people select this image as a tattoo. It is arguably the most widely used image in both ancient and modern tattoos. Throughout history each culture has reinvented and redesigned this sacred image leaving us with many different versions. There are many variations of cross drawings which I will display below. Again as with tattoos and other drawings, personal taste and style rules all....

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  • Our contribution in this area is the creation of lightweight techniques for securing existing sensor network routing and data movement approaches, such as directed diffusion [5], spin [8] and data dissemination [9, 2]. We assume the computational capability and memory requirements typical of those provided by current generation of sensors. We note that in this work we make no attempt to counter the threat from a widespread denial of service attack against the RF layer.

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  • Drawings of roses can represent quite a lot in a tattoo. While tattoos are usually very personal, there are a few recurring themes or symbols that are universal. Rose drawings in Western culture are the symbol of pure love, much like lotus drawings are in the East. The specific color of the rose, like most flowers, will change its meaning; however, in most tattoos you will see the rose depicted as red. While I am not a professional tattoo artist and can only speculate at best why a specific color or image is used in each tattoo, I can...

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  • This book is the second volume by the author on Prolog programming and its applications written for Ventus. Whereas in the first book [9], specific Prolog programming techniques were explained, in this volume we discuss some areas where Prolog can be fruitfully employed. Both books owe their existence to the recognition that the higher educational system (in the UK) does not offer enough opportunities for students to experience the satisfaction associated with successfully completing a technical task.

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  • Any message written over a fixed set of symbols can be represented as a binary string (a sequence of 0's and 1's) Binary digits 0 and 1 are called bits To reduce computation overhead, encryption algorithms should only use operations that are easy to implement For a binary string X: The length of X, denoted by |X|, is the number of bits in X If |X| = l, X is an l-bit binary string Let a be a binary bit and k a non-negative integer. Denote by ak a binary string consisting of k copies of a Denote the concatenation of X and Y by XY or...

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  • Jane Eyre is always not only one of the most prominent novels in Victorian age but also ranked among the top masterpieces in the literature history of human. The work has been loved by thousands of readers from generation to generation, from every corner in the world. Symbolic characters, writing techniques, simple and realistic plot, universal theme, etc, in which the bright talent of the female author - Charlotte Bronte do become great important factors contributing the success of the work.

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  • Machine control design is a unique area of engineering that requires the knowledge of certain specific and unique diagramming techniques called ladder diagramming. Although there are similarities between control diagrams and electronic diagrams, many of the component symbols and layout formats are different. This chapter provides a study of the fundamentals of developing, drawing and understanding ladder diagrams.

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  • THE TECHNIQUES described in this book assume you have a reasonable working knowledge of Flash. In later chapters, we’ll discuss ways of working that involve symbols, timelines and various animation techniques. This first chapter will serve as a refresher course on the fundamentals of designing for animation and introduce a few cool drawing techniques along the way.

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  • In this chapter, the characteristics of diodes are presented. Diode circuit analysis techniques will be discussed. Problems involving diode circuits are solved using MATLAB. 9.1 DIODE CHARACTERISTICS Diode is a two-terminal device. The electronic symbol of a diode is shown in Figure 9.1(a). Ideally, the diode conducts current in one direction. The current versus voltage characteristics of an ideal diode are shown in Figure 9.1(b). anode i cathode (a) i v (b) Figure 9.

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