Systematic sampling

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  • Chapter 6 - Selection of research participants: Sampling procedures. This chapter includes contents: Subject selection and sampling, technical sampling terms, random processes in research, simple random sampling, systematic sampling,...

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  • Chapter 7 - Sampling and sampling distributions. This chapter includes contents: Random sampling; the sampling distribution of the sample mean; the sampling distribution of the sample proportion; stratified random, cluster, and systematic sampling (optional); more about surveys and errors in survey sampling (optional); deviation of the mean and variance of the sample mean (optional).

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  • The latter method involved taking biopsies from six sites: the apex, middle and base of each prostate lobe, parasagitally, in addition to any hypoechoic lesion seen on ultrasound. This sextant technique detected 9% more cancers compared with the former method. As a result of this there was a shift away from lesion-directed biopsies to a method of systematic sampling of the prostate using transrectal ultrasound to guide accurate needle placement.

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  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of elderly people in Joaçaba - SC, in Southern Brazil. A survey based on systematic sampling of clusters was carried out with 183 elderly people that belong to old age groups. The survey was conducted in order to assess the oral conditions of the participants (use of and need for prosthesis) based on the criteria from the World Health Organization publication “Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods”, 4th edition. The oral health impact profile (OHIP) was used to evaluate the impact of...

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  • Statistics has evolved into a very important discipline that is applied in many fields. In the modern age of computing, both statistical methodology and its applications are expanding greatly. Among the many areas of application, we (Friis and Chernick) have direct experience in the use of statistical methods to military problems, space surveillance, experimental design, data validation, forecasting workloads, predicting the cost and duration of insurance claims, quality assurance, the design and analysis of clinical trials, and epidemiologic studies....

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  • A representative random systematic sampling of clusters from 183 elderly people aged 65 and over was selected from the old age groups of Joaçaba, SC. Previous to the commencement of the research, workshops with the participants were conducted in order to discuss the method of performance of the interviews12. A pilot test was done to calibrate the 5 surveyors in relation to the observation of the clinical condition examined, and the (kappa) agreement test was used for these measurements until an adequate value was obtained.

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  • In November 1999, the Department of Dental Surgery at Chubu National Hospital, National Institute of Longevity Science (Now: National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontologyʣ, established the first oral care outpatient clinic in the nation. We have instructed many people in methods of systematic oral care, and the service has earned a good reputation.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Systematic bioinformatic analysis of expression levels of 17,330 human genes across 9,783 samples from 175 types of healthy and pathological tissues...

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  • CHAPTER 5 Using Decision Variables T he first four chapters covered the basics of specifying Crystal Ball assumptions and analyzing Crystal Ball forecasts. This chapter covers the basics of defining and using Crystal Ball decision variables and its decision support tools, Decision Table and OptQuest. DEFINING DECISION VARIABLES Decision variables are spreadsheet cells in which the values are varied systematically rather than sampled randomly, as are assumptions.

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  • Receiver Structure for PAM Signals In this chapter we first discuss the main building blocks of a digital receiver (Section 4.1). The discussion is intended as an introduction to get a qualitative understanding of the design issues involved. In Section 4.2 we are concerned with the question under what conditions the samples of the received signal contain the entire information on the continuous-time signal. The samples obtained under such conditions provide so-called sufficient statistics for the digital receiver to be discussed in Section 4.3.

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  • The ability to effectively troubleshoot computer related problems is an important skill. The process of identifying the problem and solving it requires a systematic step-by-step approach. This lab will introduce some basic hardware and software related problems to solve. This lab will assist in becoming more familiar with PC components and the software required to use the Cisco curriculum. The process of solving a problem is fairly straightforward. Some of the suggestions here are more than what will be required to solve basic hardware and software problems.

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  • In the early 1990's when systematic biopsy of prostate using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) had just begun, there was enthusiasm for identifying abnormalities and obtaining appropriate samples. Since the occurrences of early small prostate cancer are increasing and identifying tumors using TRUS are somewhat subjective, the efficiency of the method in detecting and staging prostate cancer has decreased. (Ohori, et al. 2003) Instead, many physicians discuss about where and how many biopsy cores should be taken in order to improve the detection-rate of cancer.

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  • We measured and tested whether the following variables affect walking (basis: 200m buffer around each child's shortest walking path): number of busy intersections crossed, intersection and street density, total daily vehicle-miles traveled, average vehicle speed along the route, population density, and land use (R Wilson, 2008). Sidewalk coverage data do not exist for Roseville and could not be tested in the model. We refined the model through systematic testing of independent variables as the differ- ence in log-likelihood ratios.

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  • Third, we look at the results for other time intervals since the start of the crisis, as well as the results for “normal times” (1997–2008). Looking within the crisis, we find evidence of more underestimation of fiscal multipliers earlier in the crisis (for the time intervals 2009–10 and 2010–11) than later in the crisis (2011–12 and 2012–13). Results for the earlier samples yield coefficients typically between 0.7 and 1.0. Results for the later samples yield coefficients typically between 0.3 and 0.5 and are less statistically significant.

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  • The history of the development of prostate biopsy has changed significantly from random biopsies, to systematic to extended biopsy schemes. Systematic sextant biopsies, even when laterally directed, do not provide adequate sampling of the prostate. Ultimately the sextant biopsy technique has now become obsolete in favour of more extended biopsy protocols. To date there is no consensus on the optimal number of cores without significantly increasing morbidity but it has been shown that as prostate gland size increases, the yield of sextant biopsy has decreased (Karakiewicz et al.

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  • In this section, we focus on the relationship between total bank credit to non-bank borrowers and the international components of bank credit in emerging economies (see Annex 1 for sample of 31). We find that, in the years before the recent global financial crisis, a rising share of international credit was positively related to a rising ratio of bank credit to GDP.8 In other words, the evidence systematically implicates international credit in credit booms.

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  • In this special feature, we examine how expected equity returns vary across a sample of globally active banks and over time in 11 countries. We estimate the determinants of the rate of return on bank stocks using a standard equity pricing framework that decomposes share price risk into a systematic and an idiosyncratic component. The systematic component cannot be diversified away, and it is priced in the market in the sense of commanding higher expected returns.

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  • In order to define as accurately as possible what the ‘ordinary’ Briton has set aside, our study uses median figures throughout. Our research partners have also used independent data to create a model for the UK savings distribution at the top end of the scale, which represent the wealthiest five per cent of the population who are systematically under-represented in all ‘nationally representative’ polling. This allows us to maintain the consistency and accuracy of the survey sample in order to find the true ‘man in the middle’.

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  • This is a watershed moment in the field of neuroimaging. At least three emerging trends have been slowly reframing the field for the last five years. Each one of these trends intersects with a foundational issue in human brain mapping, affecting the measurement or methodological or theoretical nature of the overall field. First are methodological problems that have arisen concerning nonindependence of samples—in effect the lack of cross-validation procedures applied in the field, especially in social neuroscience (SN).

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