The eukaryotic cell’s genetic

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  • Secretory and transmembrane proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells. Nascent polypeptide chains, which are translated on the rough ER, are translocated to the ER lumen and folded into their native conformation. When protein folding is inhibited because of mutations or unbalanced ratios of subunits of hetero-oligomeric pro-teins, unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER in an event called ER stress.

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  • 14-3-3 proteins belong to a family of conserved molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells, which play an important role in a multitude of signaling pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphoserine⁄phosphothreonine motifs in a sequence-specific manner. More than 200 14-3-3 binding partners have been found that are involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, stress responses, cell metabolism and malignant transformation.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Microbiology demystified presents the following contents: The world of the microorganism, the chemical elements of microorganisms, observing microorganisms, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, the chemical metabolism, microbial growth and controlling microbial growth, microbial genetics, recombinant DNA technology.

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  • The conserved Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p is a key regulator of signal trans-duction and polarity in eukaryotic cells. In the yeastSaccharomyces cerevi-siae, Cdc42p promotes polarized growth through the p21-activated kinases Ste20p and Cla4p. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20p forms a com-plex with Erg4p, Cbr1p and Ncp1p, which all catalyze important steps in sterol biosynthesis.

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  • Introduction to molecular biology…(…in one hour!!) Stephen Edwards Overview. Overview of the cell Different sizes/functions Organised structure Bacterial genetics are different Eukaryotic cell DNA ontained in the nucleus Arranged in 22.

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  • Genetic information is physically carried on large DNA strings that are organized into chromosomes. Each species is characterized by a chromosome set that carry the information necessary and sufficient for its development and survival. Eukaryotic organisms are mostly diploid, containing two sets of chromosomes with each pair carrying nearly identical genetic information. Occasionally, exceptions to this rule are found, such as haploid yeast (with only one set of chromosomes) or polyploid ferns and frogs (with multiple sets).

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  • Cells of the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, have for several decades now been considered as the prototypic eukaryotic cells, ideally suited to study and uncover many of the basic phenomena of eukaryotic life.

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  • Rad51 and disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (Dmc1) are the two eukaryotic DNA recombinases that participate in homology search and strand exchange reactions during homologous recombination mediated DNA repair. Rad51 expresses in both mitotic and meiotic tissues whereas Dmc1 is confined to meiosis.

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  • (bq) part 1 book "microbiology principles and explorations" presents the following contents: scope and history of microbiology, fundamentals of chemistry, microscopy and staining, characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, essential concepts of metabolism, microbial genetics, eukaryotic microorganisms and parasites, antimicrobial therapy,...

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  • Cell navigation is the process whereby cells or cytoplasmic extensions are guided from one point to another in multicellular organisms or, in the case of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, in the environment. Recent work has demonstrated that membrane trafficking plays an important role in this process.

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  • Prolidase is a Mn 2+ -dependent dipeptidase that cleaves imidodipeptides containing C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline. In humans, a lack of prolidase activity causes prolidase deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by a wide range of clinical outcomes, including severe skin lesions, mental retardation, and infections of the respiratory tract.

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  • During DNA replication, transcription and DNA repair in eukaryotes, the cellular machineries performing these tasks need to gain access to the DNA that is packaged into chromatin in the nucleus.Chromatin is a dynamic structure thatmodulates the access of regulatory factors to the genetic material.A precise coordination and organization of events in opening and closing of the chromatin is crucial to ensure that the correct spatial and temporal epigenetic code is maintained within the eukaryotic genome....

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  • Transcription is tightly regulated in all cells. In prokaryotes, only 3% or so of the genes are undergoing transcription at any given time. The metabolic conditions and the growth status of the cell dictate which gene products are needed at any moment. Similarly, differentiated eukaryotic cells express only a small percentage of their genes in fulfilling their biological functions, not the full genetic potential encoded in their chromosomes.

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  • Chapter 18 - Genetics of viruses and bacteria. After you have mastered the material in this chapter, you will be able to: What is the Central Dogma? How does prokaryotic DNA compare to eukaryotic DNA? How is DNA organized in eukaryotic cells?

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  • It is widely accepted that chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic event in which an early eukaryotic cell engulfed an ancient cyanobacterial pro-karyote. During subsequent evolution, this new organelle lost its autonomy by transferring most of its genetic information to the host cell nucleus and therefore became dependent on protein import from the cytoplasm.

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  • The RNA recognition motif (RRM), also known as RNA-binding domain (RBD) or ribonucleoprotein domain (RNP) is one of the most abundant protein domains in eukaryotes. Based on the comparison of more than 40 structures including 15 complexes (RRM–RNA or RRM–protein), we reviewed the structure–function relationships of this domain. We identified and classified the different structural elements of the RRM that are import-ant for binding a multitude of RNA sequences and proteins.

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  • Small Hsps (sHsps) and the structurally related eye lens a-crystallins are ubiquitous stress proteins that exhibit ATP-independent molecular chaperone activity. We studied the chaperone activity of dodecameric wheatTaHsp16.9C-I, a class I cytosolic sHsp from plants and the only eukaryotic sHsp for which a high resolution structure is available, along with the related wheat proteinTaHsp17.8C-II, which represents the evolutionarily distinct class II plant cytosolic sHsps. Despite the available structural information on TaHsp16.

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  • The translational factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a central component in the initiation and regula-tionof translation ineukaryotic cells.Through its interaction with the 5¢ cap structure of mRNA, eIF4E functions to recruit mRNAs to the ribosome. The accumulation of expressed sequence tag sequences has allowed the identifi-cation of three different eIF4E-familymembers inmammals termed eIF4E-1, eIF4E-2 (4EHP, 4E-LP) and eIF4E-3, which differ in their structural signatures, functional char-acteristics and expression patterns. ...

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  • Genetic origins of amino acids 1.1 Constituents and organisation of DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic coding scheme used by all living organisms to pass on the hereditary programme to the next generation. DNA consists of two cross-linked polynucleotide chains, having an overall length of about 2 metres, which, for eukaryotes, is stored within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus occupies about 10% of the cell volume and is isolated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope, which consists of inner and outer bi-layer lipid membranes.

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