The groundwater flow

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  • The distortion flow coefficient αW (the ratio between the flow rate through the injection well section without its presence) and the groundwater flow into the tracer injection well is from 18.66 (at the early testing time) to 10.76 (at the later testing time).

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  • Results calculated by the model seem to indicate that the conceptual hypotheses adopted are reasonable for the modelled domain and period. The simulation allows for calculation of the regional groundwater flow trends. It is also used for assessing the relative importance of the various recharge sources of the shallow aquifer system in Hanoi, and for estimating the interactions between groundwater and the Red River

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  • The program SORWACO takes both the transport and sorption related nonequilibrium into account. It calculates the concentration of the pollutant in each cell at every time step. The concentration in the water flowing out of the last cell is the concentration of the water that enters the purification or discharge system. It is possible to calculate the impact of intermittent groundwater recovery on both the decrease of the concentration during the recovery and the increase when the recovery is stopped. The groundwater flow is assumed to be steady.

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  • Extensive groundwater withdrawal in Hanoi during the last decades resulted in significant depletion of aquifer storages, which has been recorded at various locations in the Hanoi city. In conditions of rapid decrease of subsurface water resources efficient groundwater management is critical. This implies the necessity of precise evaluation of natural recharge as well as its sensitivity to various factors caused by area urbanization and prediction of its response to future land cover and land use changes.

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  • About 70% of the world’s population dwells in coastal zones. With the economic and population growth, the shortage in freshwater supply becomes increasingly acute. With surface water more and more depleted and polluted, coastal communities have turned to groundwater to make up for the shortfall. For domestic supply purposes, the percentage of groundwater use has increased to more than 40% on a worldwide basis.

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  • Within the overall transport process, attenuation processes may cause movement of the chemical to differ from that of the bulk flowing groundwater, for example dispersion, sorption and chemical or biological degradation of the chemical. Such attenuation processes potentially act to mitigate the impact of chemicals and are a function of both the specific chemical and geologic domain. Indeed, attenuation may vary significantly between individual chemicals and within different geological settings.

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  • Advection is the transport of dissolved solute mass present in groundwater due to the bulk flow (movement) of that groundwater. Advection alone (with no dispersion or reactive processes occurring) would cause a non-reactive solute to advect (move) at the mean groundwater pore velocity. All solutes undergo advection, however, reactive solutes are subject to influences by other processes detailed below. Molecular diffusion is the movement of solute ions in the direction of the con- centration gradient from high towards low concentrations. It effects all solutes.

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  • Hydraulic conductivity is the most important property of geological formations as the flow of fluids and movement of solutes depend on it. Among fluids, water and contaminant migration beneath, the ground surface have become critical for water resource development, agriculture, site restoration and waste disposal strategies.

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  • In many small and shallow aquifers the hydrochemistry does not evolve further. However, the baseline natural quality of groundwater may vary spatially within the same aquifer if the mineral assemblages vary, and also evolves with time as the water moves along groundwater flow lines. If an aquifer dips below a confining layer (Figure 2.5), a sequence of hydrochemical processes occurs with progressive distance down gradient away from the outcrop, including precipitation of some solids when relevant ion concentrations reach saturation levels for a solid mineral phase.

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  • These allow products and components to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product Data Management software.[22]

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  • In addition to the creation of more wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The high concentration of impervious surfaces increases runoff from roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils, heavy metals, rubber, and other automobile pollution into waterways and streams. The reduction in water percolation into the ground can also affect the quantity and quality of groundwater. Stormwater runoff in urban areas can overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment systems when high volume flows exceed treatment capacities.

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  • Handbook Organic Chemical Industry provide some necessary content to help you have more materials for reference as well as practice knowledge. Hope the document gives you good lessons for you to study.

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  • Mining wastes can cause significant ecological destruction. Often, solid mine wastes are dumped into streams, destroying habitat and causing siltation and heavy metal and other contamination. Even when such wastes are stored out of water channels, trace materials can leach into surface waters and infiltrate into local groundwater. Fine- grained tailings can wash into local waterways and degrade streams by covering and filling coarser-grained substrates.

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  • In arid and semi-arid regions, evapotranspiration rates are much higher, recharge is less, flow paths longer and residence times much greater and hence much higher levels of natural mineralisation, often dominated by sodium and chloride, can be encountered. Thus the major ion contents and TDS are often high. In some desert regions, even if groundwater can be found it may be so salty (extremely high TDS) as to be undrinkable, and the difficulty of meeting even the most basic domestic requirements can have serious impacts on health and livelihood. ...

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